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Al Manial Palace Cairo Egypt

Al Manial Palace Cairo Egypt

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Al Manial Palace Cairo built to commemorate and memorize Islamic Art. In fact, Al Manial Palace indeed is one of the most important and historic museums. Moreover, Al Manial Palace represents a crucial period in modern Egyptian history. Moreover, it also represents portrays in detail the life of the Royal Family. The architectural designs distinguish Al Manial Palace from the other museums in Egypt. Its Modern Islamic art carrying the essence of Moroccan, Persian and Syrian styles. Al Manial Palace situated in the east of the Nile River. It is along the island of Manial El Roda in Cairo. Furthermore, it covers an area of 61711 square meters. The buildings occupy 5000 square meters. The gardens area is 34,000 square meters.

In fact, the inner roads and garden construction area is 22711 square meters. Al Manial palace divided into 11 sections. The gate built in the style of middle age castles gates. Moreover, it has terraces for guards. Al Manial Palace facade resembles that of Iranian mosques. Furthermore, it also resembles the Schools of the 14th century. The reception palace designed for receiving official guests. In fact, it consists of two stories. The first story has two rooms, the ceremony room and the reception. The reception is for those who offer Friday prayers with the Prince. The second story has two halls. They are Moroccan and Syrian halls. Moreover, the clock Tower lies between the Reception Palace and the mosque.

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In fact, the fountain lies between the tower and the great mosque. The mosque despite its small size, is indeed a unique architectural and ornamental antique. Moreover, the Hunting museum is a long hall. The hall annexed to the east gate. It overlooks the garden. Furthermore, it displays possessions of King Farouk and Prince Youssef Kamal who loved hunting. This museum finished long after the death of the Prince. It opened to the public in 1962. The two – story house is the oldest building in Al Manial Palace. It has a tower overlooking sights of Cairo and Giza. The first story features Al Shakma. It is the mirror lobby and harem room. It also features blue saloon, dining room, arabesque saloon and the fireplace room. The second story of Al Manial Palace features the jewelry room and arabesque room.

Moreover, it also features the Princes bedroom, maids room and a balcony. The balcony overlooks the mirror hall. The Throne palace designed after the Ottoman style in the form of a “Kosha”. The private museum situated in the southern part of the palace. It consists of 15 halls divided by a yard with a small garden. Al Manial Palace garden is a rare plant museum. It is where the Prince collected a lot of plants unknown in Egypt. He adapted them to the soil and environment. It is a real example for the modern Egyptian history. In fact, Al Manial Palace built for Prince Mohammad Ali between 1899 and 1929. The palace given to the Egyptian nation in 1955. Prince Muhammad Ali is the first cousin of King Faruq and the younger brother of Khedive Abbas II Hilmi.

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Al Manial palace’s plaster and wooden ceilings decorated with intrinsic designs and works of art. The art is from which hung giant Turkish and glass mishkas chandeliers. Al Manial Palace features darkened and confined arabesque living quarters. Moreover, it also features salons abounded with Turkish jades. The palace also features Persian opals and inestimable ceramics. It is besides to the palace’s marble and wooden floors which covered with priceless oriental carpets. All these form one of the world’s most important collection. Furthermore, the walls grafted with Sermas-silk embroideries and portraits of Egyptian and Turkish royals. In fact, some of them especially painted by court favorite Hedayat.

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Al Hussein mosque Cairo Egypt

Al Hussein mosque Cairo Egypt

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Al Hussein mosque built in Cairo, Egypt in 1154. In fact, it located in Khan El Kahlili area. Moreover, Al Hussein mosque named for the grandson of Prophet Muhammad. Fatimid Shia, Dawoodi and Bohar believe that the Al Hussein head buried in Al Hussein mosque. Many Shiah Muslims believe that the head of Al Hussein and his body in the Al Hussein Mosque in Karbala. Al Hussein mosque in Cairo indeed is one of the holiest Islamic sites in Cairo. It built on the cemetery of the Fatimid caliphs. It is a fact, it later discovered during the excavation. The mausoleum (dating back to 1154) is the oldest part of the complex. The current building built in the 19th century. It influenced by Gothic Revival architecture.

Al Hussein mosque houses some sacred items. They are like “the oldest complete manuscript of the Quraan”. There is a marble slab on Al Hussein mosque. It contains the hadith in which the Prophet Muhammad says: “Hussein is from me and I am from Hussein. May Allah love whoever loves Hussein. Al Hussein is a grandson (chief) from the grandsons (chieftains). At the bottom of the slab of Al Hussein mosque is a good (hasan) hadith related by Tirmidhi. It also related by Bukhari and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.

History of transfer of the head of Hussein to Cairo in Fatimid belief:

Abu Mansour Nizar Al Aziz Billah traced the site of the head of his great-grandfather. It was through the office of his contemporary in Baghdad, in 985. In the city of Ashkelon, Israel, it remained buried at “Baab al Faradis”. It was for a long time (about 250 years up to 1153). After the 21st Fatimid Imam At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim went into seclusion. His uncle, Abd al Majid occupied the throne of the Fatimid Empire. Al-Zafir, order to transfer the head of Al Hussein to Cairo. It was because of Fearing from disrespect and the atrocities of the traitors. Historians and Ibn Muyassar have mentioned that the casket reached Cairo. It was on Tuesday 2 September 1153.

The famous Mamluk historian of Egypt, Mohiyuddin Abd al Zahir wrote:

When Salahuddin came to power he seized all the Palaces of the Aimmat Fatemiyeen. He looted their properties and treasures. He destroyed the valuable and rare collection of the hundred thousands books. It was in the river Nile. When he learnt through his intelligence.. That one of the.. custodians of Raas Al Imam Al Hussein.. respected by the people of ..Qahera, he surmised that perhaps he .. be aware of ..treasures of the Aimmat Fatemiyeen. Salahuddin issued orders to present him in his court. He inquired of him ..of the Fatemi..treasures. The nobleman denied ..about the treasures“.

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Salahuddin angered, and ordered his intelligence .. to ask him through ‘third degree torture’. But the nobleman bore ..torture and repeated ..statement. .. Salahuddin ordered his soldiers to put a cap on the head of the nobleman. The cap contains Centipedes. It was such type of punishment. It was so severe and unbearable. None could survive even for a few minutes. Before putting the Cap of Centipedes on the head, his hair shaved. It was to make it easy for the Centipedes to suck blood, which in turn made holes in skull. But! In spite of that punishment the noble custodian of Hussein’s Head. Felt no pain at all. Salahuddin ordered for more Centipedes to put on .. but it could not kill or pain him“.

Finally Salahuddin Ayyubi ordered for a tight cap full of Centipedes .. to do the result. Even this method could not torture or kill him. The Ayyubid brutes astounded further when they sawthe Centipedes were dead. It was when removed the cap. Salahuddin asked the nobleman to reveal the secret of this miracle. The nobleman revealed as follow:

“When Al Hussein head brought to Qasar, he carried the casket on his head. ‘O Salahuddin! This is the secret of my safety”.

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The burial place now also known as Raous (head)-us-Husain. A silver Zarih (Maqsurah) made on the place by Dawoodi Bohra Dai. The place visited regularly by all Shia. The presentation of the Maqsurah is also unique in the history. It is in loyalty and faithfulness. The Maqsurah of All Hussein head constructed for the Al Abbas Mosque at Karbala, Iraq. When this Maqsurah reached the mosque of Al-Abbas ibn Ali it would not fit on the place. The size of the Maqsurah and the site of the fitting place differed at the time of fitting. It is although every technical aspects and measurements of the site taken into account. The engineers astonished, as what had happened, although handled professionally.

The loyalty of Al-Abbas ibn Ali also seen on that day too. In fact, it seen on the day of Aashurah. There a divine guidance came to the effect by way of intuition. A sincere, faithful and loyal brother could not tolerate, that Al Hussein head should be without a Maqsurah. Thus how could he accept this gift for himself. Hence even after Shahadat, Al-Abbas ibn Ali paid his tribute to Hussein. He presented his own Maqsurah for Raas (head) al Imam Al Hussein. When this Maqsurah brought from Karbala, Iraq to Al Moizziyat al Qahera, Egypt. It fitted upon the original position of the grave. It known as Mashhad of Raas al Imam Al Hussein in such a manner.

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Al Hakim mosque Cairo

Al Hakim mosque Cairo Egypt

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Al Hakim mosque Cairo also known as Al-Jam`e Al-Anwar. In fact, Al Hakim mosque is the second largest Fatimid mosque in Cairo. The name of Al Hakim bi-Amr Allah means “Ruler by God’s Command”. He known to many by his eccentric dictatorial and eccentric decrees. At one point he declared himself a divine entity. Al Hakim went off on a mysterious one way ride to al-Muqattam hills and never returned. In fact, the building of Al Hakim mosque started in 990 by the Caliph Al Aziz Billah. He is son of the famous Khalifa Al Moez Lideen Allah Al Fatimy. Wood cutters, their camels, mules, carts and wood logs banned from treading the street. This is To secure serenity and solemnity during the Fatimid Era. Moreover, streets lit all night by lanterns. Lanterns hung on the facades of buildings and shops.

In fact, the building served as a prison for captive Crusaders. It served also as Napoleon’s warehouse and Salah al-Din’s stable. Moreover, Al Hakim mosque served also as a lamp factory and a boys’ elementary school under Nasser. It was when a basketball court marked off in the courtyard. Napoleon’s soldiers left the mosque in a bad state and it fell into disrepair. In fact, it was at the end of the 18th century. It later revived during the reign of Khedive Tawfik. The foundation for the first Islamic Museum before that museum relocated to Bab Al Khalq in 1903. The first time to use Al Hakim mosque as a mosque was in 1452. In fact, the mosque stood outside the enclosure walls of Fatimid Cairo. It was until Badr Al Gamali rebuilt the Northern Wall.

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This is to include the the mosque within the boundaries of the enclosed city. This is a good example of a congregational mosque. It was typical to early Islamic architecture. Al Hakim mosque constructed of brick with stone facades and minarets. It covers about the same area as the Ibn Tulun Mosque. Al Hakim has an irregular rectangular plan with a rectangular central. It has also open courtyard surrounded by arcades. They are supported by compound piers with a prayer hall. The arcades also carried on compound piers. The front facade on the north given a central projecting monumental portal. In fact, the mosque has three domes and a central nave in the qibla prayer hall. It is higher and wider than the lateral aisles with a basilica disposition. The termination of this aisle at the mihrab marked by a dome and carried on squinches.

The domes mark the outer corners of the prayer hall as well. Al Hakim mosque’s two corner minarets are different in shape and decoration. They encased in projecting trapezoidal stone structures. That project into the street, during the reign of Al Hakim in 1002-3 AC. These minarets are the oldest surviving minarets in Cairo as they stand at the outer walls of the mosque. In fact, the bases are original. Furthermore, they seen inside the buttresses. The tops replaced in 1303 by Baybars II Al Gashankir. It was during the Mumluk period after an earthquake destroyed the upper stories. Baybars was also responsible for the mabkhara finials. He was also responsible for poly-chrome marble which faces mihrab. In fact, it is in the qibla wall to the right of the main mihrab.

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An interior staircase leads to the city’s ramparts and a rampart walk that date from the 12th century. Al Hakim built his mosque in the tradition of the Great mosque of Qairawan in Tunisia. The original decorations remains after a restoration by an Ismaili Shii sect. Al Hakim mosque has encased in marble and only the wooden tie-beams. Stucco carvings in the clerestory and Quranic inscriptions remain of the original decorations. Every Friday, the mosque hosts hordes of worshipers. They head for it weekly. They perform their midday prayers, and to give the mosque its fame. In fact, it is the most crowded mosque of Old Cairo.

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Al Azhar mosque Cairo, Egypt

Al Azhar mosque Cairo Egypt

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Al Azhar mosque Cairo is the first Islamic university which built in Cairo around 1000 years ago. Moreover, Al Azhar mosque in Cairo was the official mosque which has the Friday prayers. In fact, it built by the great Fatimid army leader and the builder of Cairo, Gawhar El Seqelly. It was due to the orders of the Fatimid Caliph, Al Mui’z le Din Allah. The building of Al Azhar mosque Cairo started in the year 970 AD. In fact, it finished three years afterwards in 972 AD. The objects behind building was to make it the official mosque of Cairo. It is the same as Amr Ib Al Aas Mosque and the Ahmed Ibn Tulun mosque. Al Azhar mosque in Cairo established to be an educational institution. That is to teach Shiite teachings and spread it all over the country.

Architectural description of Al Azhar mosque in Cairo:

The old area of Al Azhar mosque was only half the area it has now. New buildings, and restorations done during all the following eras made it as it shape now. The early mosque of Al Azhar consisted of three iwnas, prayers halls, and a Sahn. Sahn is an open air courtyard. The gate of the mosque located in the mosque’s Western walls. This section contained a simple Fatimid minaret. It decorated with Kofy Islamic writings and plant ornaments. They are the only remaining feature of the ancient mosque that is still available now.

The old Mihrab of the mosque decorated with ornaments and Kofi writings of Quran. There is also a Mamluk style dome. In fact, the dome goes back to the 15th century which took the place of the Fatimid dome. The mosque of Al Azhar had three gates in its Northern, southern, and western walls. The original Minnbar built by Gawher El Seqqely. In fact, it was then transferred to Al Hakim mosque.

Al Azhar Mosque Cairo in the Fatimid period:

In fact, Al Azhar mosque went through a lot of changes in the Fatimid period. Al Hakim be’amr Allah added 27 amazing lamps to the mosque. The lamps made of silver. What remains of the works of Al Hakim is a small wooden door. The decorated with Kufi writings which was the dominant decoration feature of this era. In 1125, the Fatimid ruler Al Amer be’ahkam Allah established a Mihrab for Al Azhar mosque in Cairo. It made out of the Aro Turkish wood which decorated with a lot of plant and geometric shapes. Fatimid Caliph, Al Hafez Le Dine Allah wanted to expand the area of Al Azhar mosque Cairo. In fcat, it was In 1149 AC. He added some space to the Sahn of the mosque. He also added some decorations to the walls of the mosque and it built out of plaster.

Al Azhar Mosque Cairo in the Mamluk period:

In 1266 AD, Al Zaher Baybars ordered to build a Minbar. Nothing remains of it except its historical building note which now kept in the museum in Algeria. The Tabrisy Madrasa which is Islamic teaching institution built by Baybars Khazendar. He was the army commander in the reign of Al Nasser Mohamed Ibn Qalaun. It is to right hand when you enter the Al Azhar mosque. This added a bigger space to the mosque. It hosted Islamic teachings classes and also had a large Islamic books library. The Afghaweya Madrasa built in 1340 AD. It located on the left hand side of the entrance. Moreover, it hosts the library of Al Azhar in the present time. Al Gawhareya Madrasa built in the Eastern Southern section of the mosque, is a small Madrasa. It consists of four Iwans and a small Sahn.

Al Azhar mosque Cairo in the Ottoman era:

In fact, Al Azhar mosque had a lot of building works in the Ottoman era. The biggest and most important building work done by the Amir Abdel Rahman Katkhuda in 1753 AD. He expanded the area of the mosque by adding a Riwaq behind the Mihrab. It built on a higher level than the whole mosque. He also added a new Minbar and Mihrab. Katkhuda added two great gates as well. The first one is in the Southern wall. It called the Sa’ayda gate. The Shroba gate is in the Eastern section of the mosque. Furthermore,  a minaret added beside it.

Katkhuda was also responsible for building the beautiful Western gate. It is now the main entrance of the mosque. The mosque also restored by the supreme council of antiquities in the modern time. Al Azhar as a mosque and as an educational institution has played a major role in the whole Egyptian history. It is especially in fighting the French and British occupation.

Al Azhar University:

It is the largest and most important Islamic teaching institution in the whole world. It is the second modern university to built in history. Islamic teaching in Al Azhar University transformed from Shiite teaching to Sunni teaching. In fact, it started in the Fatimid era. It is still one of the most important education institutions in Egypt and in the whole world.

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Al Ghouri complex Cairo

Al Ghouri complex Cairo Egypt

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Al Ghouri complex Cairo built as a funerary complex established by Sultan Qansuh Al Ghouri. In fact, Al Ghouri complex built between 1503 and 1504. It was in the Fahhamin quarter on Al Mu’izz street in Islamic Cairo. There was a clear decline in the quality of craftsmanship. Moreover, it was particularly in stone carving and marble inlay during his reign. Al Ghouri complex indeed is an interesting architectural composition. It built on both sides of a street. In this regard, they form one of the most impressive hyphen, or double ensembles in Cairo. The western side in Al Ghouri complex includes a Friday madrasa and mosque. They built on the Qa’a plan. The eastern side of Al Ghouri complex includes a Khanqah and mausoleum as well as a Sabil kuttab.

In fact, Qansuh Al Ghouri was the next to last Mamluk sultan. Moreover, he was the last to enjoy a reign of any duration between 1500 and 1516 AD. Al Ghouri seems to have an energetic fellow who was still playing polo in his 70s. Furthermore, he was also a somewhat arbitrary depot who could be cruel and superstitious. Al Ghouri appears to have taken his responsibilities and was a great builder. He also loved flowers and music. Moreover, he wrote poetry and attracted to Sufi and other pious men. He died (some say of a heart attack) fighting the Ottoman Turks outside Aleppo. He followed the defection of Amir Khayrbak in the midst of the battle. His body never found. His tomb was thus occupied by his successor the unfortunate Tumanbay. Tumanbay buried in the courtyard of Al Ghoury complex behind the mausoleum.

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The madrasa at Al Ghouri complex inaugurated on the eve of the Feast of the Sacrifice. Feast of the Sacrifice called Eid Al Adha in Arabic language. It was in May 1503 with a great banquet which attended by the Abbasid Caliph Mustamsek. Mustamsek was the chief judges of the four orthodox rites. The madrasa and mosque at Al Ghouri complex built in the late Mamluk cruciform style. They inspired by Qaitbay’s Mausoleum and Madrasa. But they are larger in scale and their details are less elegant. The western facade of Al Ghouri complex has a trilobed stalactite portal. It also has a tiraz band and a minaret projecting at its south edge. The minaret of Al Ghouri complex is atypical of this period. Mamluk minarets consist of square, octagonal and round layers.

This four story minaret is rectangular from top to bottom with arched panels on each side. The top of Al Ghouri complex had four bulbs instead of just one. They made of brick covered with green tiles. In 1505, the minaret was leaning. It reconstructed and the upper part made with bricks covered with blue faience tiles. The present top with five bulbs is a modern addition and a misrepresentation of the original one. There were already minarets with double bulbs such as those at Qanibay Al Rammah mosque. When Muhammad Bey Abu Al Dahab built his Mosque, he crowned its minaret with five bulbs. The red and white checkerboard squares that adorn the minaret actually painted on. There is distinctive poly-chrome marble dado. It flagging laid in geometric patterns and gilt.

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It painted wood paneling. There is a central sunken and open courtyard which surrounded by four Iwans. The two largest of the Iwans have Moorish arches. The smaller two have raised arches. The interior paved and paneled with black and white marble. Stone carving covers the walls but it is of poor quality, shallow and repetitive. The stalactites that frame the upper walls of the covered courtyard, underneath the skylight. The Khanqah and mausoleum of Al Ghouri complex function as a cultural center today. The Khanqah is a religious hostel for Sufi monks. The facade of the khanqah and mausoleum also has a trilobed stalactite portal and a tiraz band. On its northern edge a sabil-kuttab projects into the street with three facades.

The interior of the sabil-kuttab is decorative, with marble floors. The ceiling supported by rounded, painted and gilt beams. From the vestibule of Al Ghouri complex, the funeral chamber is on the right. To the left is a prayer hall with three Iwans which distributed around the raised. They covered part of a lantern. The mausoleum of Al Ghouri complex was on the south side of the interior. Now it has only its rectangular base and transition zone of the dome. The dome made of brick and covered over with green tiles. It collapsed at the beginning of the 1900s. Actually, the dome had been unstable from the beginning. It rebuilt three times during Al Ghouri’s lifetime. The builder never got it right. The mausoleum dome of Imam Shafi’i also covered at one time with green tiles. It was perhaps after Al Ghouri’s restoration.

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The transition zone of Al Ghouri complex made of stone pendentives. Perhaps the most interesting feature here the carved surface of the wall. The marble slabs that once decorated the madrasa, having confiscated by Al Ghouri. It was from someone else in the first place. They were in turn confiscated and taken to Istanbul by Selim I in 1517. On the left or north side of the entrance vestibule is a qa’a, which here called a khanqah. No living units attached to it. Earlier Khanqahs did provide housing for Sufi. This one was increasing rare during the late Mamluk period. The Waqf deed states that Sufi should have their meetings there. It does not refer to any living accommodations provided for them. There are a few living units attached to the madrasa across the street. It was student housing those the foundation deed does not mention teaching activities.

These structures are an example of a royal religious foundation. They are with facades which not adjusted to the street alignment. In fact, they instead make an angle, leaving the space between the two facades widening into a sort of square. The square of Al Ghouri complex is semi-enclosed at the north ends. Moreover, it is by the projection of the Sabil-Kuttab of the mausoleum. At the south end is by the projection of the minaret of the madrasa. The square rented for market stalls. It was the income which contributed to Al Ghouri’s endowment of the foundation. At one time, the square roofed over. And when David Roberts drew the square in 1839, it was a silk market.

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In fact, this support continues even today. Moreover, there are still shops here on both sides of the street. The rend now collected by the Ministry of Waqfs. Furthermore, it used in maintaining the religious buildings and their personnel. In fact, Al Ghouri himself never buried in his mausoleum. Several others buried before the sultan’s death. The first was his daughter in 1505. It followed by his son, Nasser Al Din Muhammad and by one of his concubines. The latter two were victims of the plague. In 1510, Al Ghouri also had the three year old daughter of his secretary of State, Tumanbay, buried here.

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Al Aqmar mosque Cairo

Al Aqmar mosque Cairo Egypt

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Al Aqmar mosque Cairo located in the heart of Cairo city. In fact, Al Aqmar mosque located north of the site which once occupied by the great Fatimid. Moreover, Al Aqmar means the Moonlit and sometimes also known as the Gray Mosque. Al Aqmar mosque Cairo founded by Ma’mun al-Bata’ihi, during the caliphate of al-Mustanser. Moreover, it built during a time of great political and spiritual crises for the Fatimid regime. It located on the main artery of the city. In plan, it is a regular, rectangular hypo-style mosque with a square courtyard. It is the plan of a small congregational mosque. This structure is of major importance for Cairo’s architecture for several reasons. Al Aqmar mosque Cairo indeed is one of the seminal monuments in Cairo’s architectural history.

Al Aqmar mosque is the first mosque with an entrance which is not on an axis with the qibla wall. Here, the facade follows the alignment of the street, while the qibla wall oriented to Mecca. Al Aqmar mosque Cairo is the first with a ground plan adjusted to an existing urban street plan. A phenomenon which over the ensuing centuries was to become common and complex. Here, the plan is rather simple. The interior of Al Aqmar mosque Cairo has a regular layout with the exception. The exception is that the facade wall is thicker on one end than the other. Into the thicker part of the wall, a vestibule, a staircase and two rooms opening into the interior. Al Aqmar mosque Cairo is also the first mosque in Cairo to have a decorated stone facade.

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The facade is brick which faced with stone. A wing to the right of the entrance salient covered up by a later house. In the 1980s, a restoration unveiled the hidden part. It returned the facade to its original balanced proportions. This restoration done by the Bohara Indian sect. The middle of the tripartite composition dominated by a protruding portal. It decorated with a large keel arch niche. They carved with fluting radiating from a central medallion. It is like a sunrise or shell motif. The medallion has the name of Muhammad repeated in a circular interlacing pattern. It forms a circle, with the name ‘Ali at the center, all in Kufic and pierced right through the stone.

This is all surrounded by a circle of arabesque. And also of pierced Kufic, with a final circular band decorated with interlacing scrolls. The work of engraving and piercing shows both skill and perfection. The ribbed shell hood of the entrance salient is with its pierced medallion. It appears here for the first time. Moreover, it was the prototype of all the later ribbed. Moreover, it is blind and keel arch decoration which remains somewhat vogue on Cairo’s buildings. The niches on either side of the entrance each crowned with four tiers of stalactites. Set back within these are two smaller ones. Each has a small fluted semi-dome. Above these two niches are two small ones. Each has a fluted hood and supported by two engaged columns.

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To the left of the portal another shallow niche. It repeats the sunrise or shell motif with a medallion in the center. Above it, a circular clean cut in the stone reveals the brick wall. It indicates that a medallion once existed there. Two lozenges, one with geometric carving and the other with a vase and plant motif. They surmounted on both sides of the missing medallion by two strange, carved panels. The one to the right represents a closed door. It is like the door of Al Hakim. It is now in the Islamic Museum. The one to the left shows a niche with a geometric grill resembling a window. From its apex hangs a lamp. Al Aqmar mosque Cairo has a symbolic meaning within a Shi’a context.

The two plants standing in the vase has interpreted to be symbolic of Hasan and Husayn. They are the sons of the Caliph ‘Ali by his wife Fatima. This pattern is also repeated in Christian Coptic art. There are many examples existing in the Coptic Museum in Old Cairo. The niches with the hanging lamp and closed door placed. On each side of the missing medallion there is more decoration. There are three inscription bands that run along the facade of Al Aqmar mosque Cairo. The first is at the summit. It contains the name of Al Amir Bi-Ahkam-Allah. And next to it is the name of his Wazir (Minister) Ma’mun al-Bata’ihi. They are together with his titles, and the date of foundation. The second runs at the springing of the entrance arch.

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In fact, it also contains the names of al- Ma’mun and his titles and the date of foundation. The third band runs at the level of the door lintel and only contains verses from the Quran. Another special feature of the facade is a corner which carved with the names of Muhammad and ‘Ali. The original minaret of Al Aqmar mosque Cairo has not survived. We can see on the left door jamb of the portal the circular base of the minaret. It built in the late fourteenth century by Amir Yalbugha Al Salami. In fact, it is a brick construct which covered with stucco chevron. Moreover, it carves and a molding with open work bosses and a stalactite cornice. Above the balcony, the structure is of even later date. The interior of Al Aqmar mosque Cairo has not retained much of its original form.

The small sanctuary has three aisles and faces the courtyard with only a triple arcade. The closet door of Al Aqmar mosque Cairo features a fine example of Fatimid wood. It is with panels of arabesque ornament. On the northwest side of the sanctuary. The three other arcades have only one aisle each. Bands of Quranic verse in Kufic script on an arabesque background still survive. They are around the keel arches of the courtyard, which supported on marble columns. The keel arches did not appear in Egypt until the latter part of the Fatimids period. They first seen in the dome of Sheikh Ynis, attributed to Badar al-Gamali. The spandrels decorated with shallow saucers. They composed of eight ribs radiating from a central medallion.

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There is special feature of the interior architecture. It is that each bay’s ceiling covered by a shallow brick dome instead of being flat. In fact, it is except for the aisle parallel to the qibla wall, which is wider than the rest. Moreover, it covered with a flat wooden ceiling. Al Aqmar mosque Cairo was in ruins when the Mamluk Amir Yalbugha al-Salami restored it in 1396/97. (799H). Some scholars assume that he also restored the ceiling. The ceiling hase been flat. This type of ceiling not known from the Fatimids period. It used in the early fifteenth century at the mosque of Faraj Ibn Barquq. Yalbugha al-Salami also restored the minbar of Al Aqmar mosque Cairo. It retains its Fatimid ornament. It can observed on the entrance arch and at the back of the speaker’s seat.

Nothing of the original interior decoration remains. It is except some wood carving on the beams and doors. Moreover, it is also except a stucco inscription band along some of the arches. Al Aqmar mosque Cairo once again restored in the nineteenth century. It was during the reign of Muhammad Ali by Amir Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar. Al Silahdar also built the mosque across the street from this one. Al Aqmar mosque Cairo was not at street level as it is today. In fact, it was much higher than the street and stands above a row of shops. The rising ground level has now buried the these shops. At the time, they had an important function. The income of their rents were waqf.

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Abu Al Dahab mosque Cairo

Abu Al Dahab mosque Cairo Egypt

Abu Al Dahab mosque Cairo information, tours, prices, booking

Abu Al Dahab mosque Cairo located in the Azhar Street, just beside the main entrance of Azhar Mosque. In fact, Abu Al Dahab mosque built in 1774 AD after a year of construction. Moreover, Abu Al Dahab mosque built as a Madrasa. It was to host the increasing number of students who were coming to study in Al Azhar University. They are from all over the world. In the year 1771, Mohamed Abu Al Dahab appointed by Amir Ali Beh Al Kabir. It was to be the leader of the Egyptian army that went to conquer Syria. He was successful in his campaign as he took control of many towns in Syria and around it. Moreover, he was not loyal to his master, Amir Ali Beh Al Kabir. He murdered him in 1774, and became the only ruler of Egypt before his death in Aka in 1775.

In fact, his body buried in the mausoleum of his mosque. The mosque is the fourth mosque which built in Cairo according to the Ottoman style of architecture. The first one was the mosque of Suleiman Pasha in the Citadel which built in the year 1528. The second one was the mosque of Sinan Pasha in Boulaq. The third one was the Mosque of the Queen Safeya in Al Dawedeya. In fact, the mosque has many common architectural factors with the mosque Of Sinan Pasha. Moreover, Abu Al Dahab mosque constructed as a rectangle. The length of 33 meters from the South to the North and 24 meters from the East to the West. The praying area of the mosque surrounded with Rewaqs. The Arabic expression for the area between a set of two opposite pillars.

Further details:

These Rewaqs covered with small domes with plant decorations all around them. Above the praying area, there is the main dome of Abu Al Dahab mosque that is a semi square. In fact, the length of each side of this square is 15 meters. Moreover, each has two brass windows that covered with alabaster. Furthermore, the mosque is a hanging mosque as it built above the street level. Under Abu Al Dahab mosque Cairo, there are many different stores that sell books. They are from the Eastern and Northern sides.

In fact, there was a set of colored alabaster stairs in its Northern side. It led to the gate of the mosque, and another set circular stairs that led to the Mosques Eastern gate. These two sets of stairs changed, although the doors of the mosque remained the same. The minaret of the mosque indeed is huge. It looks much like the minaret of the mosque of Qonswa Al Ghuri. They both share the Egyptian style of architecture. They are other than the Ottoman mosques that were famous for their thin pen shaped minarets. The minaret of the mosque of the mosque is tall and consists of three stores with five stone heads at the top.

More details about Abu Al Dahab mosque Cairo:

The Mihrab of the mosque located under the main dome of the mosque. It is a carved wall that has beautiful alabaster and mother of pearl decorations. The Mihrab of this mosque is unique, built in the Ottoman period, as it designed in the Mamluks style. Next to the Mihrab, there is the Minbar. It made out of fine wood that ornamented with pieces of mother of pearl and ivory. Beside the Minbar there is a brass room. It contains the tombs of the mosque builder, Mohamed Beh Abu Al Dahab, and his daughter, Zelikha Hanem

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