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Roman Amphitheater Alexandria

Roman Amphitheater Alexandria information, tours, prices, booking

The Roman Amphitheater Alexandria is one of the most popular monuments in Alexandria City. Alexandria is the second most important city in Egypt after Cairo. Amphitheaters quite spread during the reign of the Romans. They were in different countries like Greece, Italy, and Turkey. They are present in many regions around Europe and the Middle East. Roman Amphitheater Alexandria is the only one of its type in Egypt. The word “Kom El Dekka” in Arabic, means the hill of rubble or the hill of the benches. It named when a famous historian, El Neweiry, passed by this area in the beginning of the 20th century.

El Neweiry saw the many piles of rubble and sand. The formed due to the digging of the Mahmoudeyya Canal at the end of the 19th century. The canal linked Alexandria to the Nile River. These piles looked exactly like some huge benches. El Neweiry was the one who gave the area its recent famous name. The Roman Amphitheater Alexandria indeed is one of the most important Roman architectural achievements in Egypt. It was by mere coincidence in 1960. The workers went to remove a pile of dust and sand in 1960. It was to clear the land and construct a governmental building. They found some solid iron columns while digging into the ground.

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The excavation work began in the location of Kom El Dekka. It carried out by the Graeco Roman Museum. Polish Excavation Mission in Egypt sponsored by the University of Warsaw. Excavation works revealed one of the most important discoveries in Egypt. The Roman Amphitheater Alexandria stayed in service and used to host different artistic events. It is like musical concerts and different sorts of events up till the seventh century. This fact proven due to the architectural elements present in the theater. It showed that it used during three different periods. They Roman, Byzantine and the Early Islamic era. The Roman Amphitheater Alexandria used in several purposes. It was during its long history and passing by different periods of time. It used as an odium where musical shows performed during the Roman period.

The theater, at the time, had all the elements to host perfect performance. It was like the dome that once stood over the stage and the section of the orchestra. In the Byzantine era, it used as a conference hall. It was where important meetings like public assemblies and governmental summits take place. The Roman Amphitheater Alexandria neglected during the early Islamic period and onward. In fact, it was until discovered during the middle of the 20th century. It became one of the most marvelous historical sites of the city of Alexandria. The Roman Amphitheater which we see today constructed in the 4th century AC. It was a common feature of the Graeco Roman period. Amphitheaters were special roofed theaters. They built to host music ceremonies and poet competitions during the reign of the Romans in Egypt.

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The Roman Amphitheater Alexandria featured with its marble audiences section. It is symmetrical with extended wing. In fact, it hosted up 600 spectators. The audience section of the Roman Amphitheater has a diameter of about 33 meters. It consists of 13 rows. They made of European white marble. The uppermost part was a portico which made out of Granite columns. Granite columns brought from Aswan and some of them are still standing until today. The thirteen rows of the Roman Amphitheater Alexandria numbered. They numbered with Roman digits and letters. It was to regulate the seating of the audience in different occasions.

There were also five compartments. They constructed at the top of the audience section. They used to host important figures and wealthy tradesmen during performances. These compartments used to have ceilings with domes. Domes based upon large columns made of granite to protect the audience from the sun and the rain. The domes used to magnify the sound of the music and the chants during different performances. All these structures destroyed during an earthquake. It hit Alexandria in the 6th century AD. It resulted in the damage of many important structures at the time. They are like the famous Pharaohs Light House. Pharaohs Light House once stood in the position of the Qaitbey Fort nowadays.

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The steps and the rows of the Roman Amphitheater based upon a thick white limestone wall. Another wall surrounds it as well. These two walls connected together through many arches. They are where the outer wall function to support the inner wall. It was a common feature of the Roman architecture from the 2nd to the 4th century. In the middle of the structure, there is the section of the orchestra. It is where the musical performances used to take place. This section supported with two large marble columns. It has some of the finest Roman mosaics on its floor.

Contemporary researches that made some comparisons between the Roman Amphitheater Alexandria and others. The others are similar structures which discovered in Italy, Greece and Garash Theater in Tunisia. They have concluded many interesting facts. One fact is that Roman Amphitheater Alexandria not constructed to be a theater. It was not a theater for hosting performances and artistic events. In fact, it designed for meetings of important figures and officials. It was maybe for private performances which has a limited number of audience.

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Souk El Attarine Alexandria Egypt

Souk El Attarine Alexandria

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Souk El Attarine Alexandria is more of a labyrinth of narrow alleys. It is pedestrian streets. In fact, Souk El Attarine Alexandria bursts with all types of shops. They dotting both sides of the streets. Moreover, the merchants sell all types of souvenirs and traditional Egyptian artifacts. The traditional Egyptian artifacts are such as sheeshas and colorful blown glass products. Moreover, they also include Gallabeyyas, belly-dancing costumes, spices and antiques. Collectors will have a great load of fun diving. It is through the accumulated piles of historical relics in each shop. It forbidden to export any Ancient Egyptian antiquities from Egypt without a permit.

In fact, Souk El Attarine Alexandria located Attarine district on Attarine street. Moreover, it is a few meters to the east of the Roman Amphitheater in Alexandria. “Souk” is the term for a traditional outdoor marketplace. It sometimes referred to as a bazaar. Many different places in North Africa and the Middle East contain these markets. Countries such as Dubai, Morocco, Syria and of course Egypt. These popular markets come in many different shapes and sizes. Egyptian Souks sell pretty much anything you can imagine. Perhaps even some things you can’t! Fresh fish, fruit, vegetables, fabrics, clothing and even gadgets can found in Souks.

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For those who go to Egypt holidays, it’s hard to choose what to buy. It is specially when you get to the Souk. Let alone choosing which ones to visit!. In fact, Souk El Attarine Alexandria is on of the top 5 Souks in Egypt. Let your stay in Egypt have an opportunity to visit one of Souks such this souk in Alexandria, Egypt. Have a break from the sightseeing and do some bargain hunting.

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Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria

Nabi Daniel Mosque Alexandria Egypt

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Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria located in Nabi Daniel street in Moharram Bek in Alexandria. In fact, Nabi Daniel is not popular among the Muslims globally. The present Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria built at the end of the 18th century. It restored in 1823 by Muhammad Ali. A smaller shrine preexisted on the site. It maybe was the mosque of Dzoul Karnein – the Sire with the two horns -. In fact, Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria contains the remains of the scholar and venerated teacher Prophet Daniel. It also has his companion Sidi Lokman el Hakim, a religious story teller. The Arab legend of the Prophet Daniel appeared during the 9th century.

He told by two astronomers: Mohammad Ibn Kathir el Farghani and Abou Ma’shar. It mentioned that “a young Jew, Daniel persecuted and chased from Syria. It was by the idolaters whom he tried to convert. Moreover, an old man appeared in a dream urging him to go to war. The war was against the infidels and promising victory over all Asia. In fact, Nabi Daniel acquired many followers in Egypt. It is where he sought refuge and built Alexandria. Obeying what the old man ordered him in his dream, he made war against the infidels. After a successful expedition, he returned to Alexandria and died of old age. Furthermore, his body placed in a golden sarcophagus inlaid with precious stones. But the Jews stole it to mint coins and replaced it with a stone sarcophagus”.

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Vassili Grigorovich Barskij, visited Alexandria in 1727 and 1730. In fact, he was Russian monk. He made a plan of the city. Near the Kom el Dekka mound, he drew a small Mohammedan shrine. It could be the predecessor of the Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria. We cannot refer to his written description of the city. Barskij’s work only translated and only fragments studied. Moreover, the Danish Captain Norden visited the town in 1737, but tried in vain to find the tomb of Alexander. James Bruce looked for the tomb of the Great Macedonian. It was 30 years later in 1768. He asking the Arabs, the Jews, the Greeks and others, but none were able to show him the location”. At the end of the 18th century, Sestrini shown the sarcophagus in the Attarine mosque.

Moreover, Archimandrite Konstantios tried without success to locate Alexander’s Mausoleum in 1803. He was a Russian prelate from Kiev. He noted that he… ” looked in vain for… the tomb of Alexander the Great. It was the tomb of the man whose life’s course was above the faith of common mortals…;”. He stated that “until the 15th century the location known. But now even the tradition of this tomb has lost…”. He added that “beyond any doubt the remains survived under the great masses of the city’s ruins”. Konstantios, in his writing, and Barskij in his plan do not mention either of the Mosques. A new impulse given to the legend of the tomb of Alexander the Great. It was in the middle of the 19th century.

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Looking through the cracks of the planks he saw a body with the head rose lying in a crystal coffin. On the head, there was a golden diadem. Around scattered papyri, scrolls and books. He tried to remain longer in the vault. But he pulled away by one of the monks of the Mosque. In spite of his repeated attempts to return, he forbidden the area of the crypt. Scilitzis made a written report to the Russian Consul. He also did to the Greek Patriarch of Alexandria. Scilitzis read Dion Cassius and had access to the passage under Nabi Daniel mosque. In fcat, he did not tell the truth. In the humid climate of Alexandria, papyri and books survived for over two millennia.

Mahmoud Bey el Falaki was Egyptian astronomer and engineer. He visited the crypts under the Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria some ten years after Scilitzis. He tried to carry our the difficult task of drawing a map. The map was of the ancient town. In fact, it ordered in 1865 by the Khedive Ismail. From this paved room inclined corridors started out in four different directions. Because of their length and their bad state I could not survey them. The rich quality of the stones used in the construction. Other indications confirmed a belief. It is that these subterranean passages must have led to the tomb of Alexander the Great. El Falaki was not an archaeologist. So we can be skeptical about his conclusions. But one would not question his sincerity and he must considered as a reliable witness.

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His description raises some questions. Who decided and why, to force El Falaki to suspend his survey of the subterranean passages? Falaki was working for a project sponsored by the reigning Khedive. Why did he not appeal to his powerful patron? Why did he drop his investigation. There was allegation of a discovery. It made in 1879 by a chief mason and the Sheikh of the Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria. The story was that while doing masonry work in the basement, they entered the vault. They and reached an inclined subterranean passage. They both walked for some distance and could discern some monuments. Monuments made of granite ending with an angular summit.

In fact, the mason wanted to proceed further but the Sheikh ordered him to return. Moreover, the entrance walled up and the mason asked not to reveal that incident. About 6 meters down, finished with marble and granite, one could find at least two other chambers. They are on the north and on the east side of the Nabi Daniel’s crypt. Sidi Luqman el-Hakeem’s crypt is on the right side of the Nabi Daniel’s crypt. It attached to the marbled wall.

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Pompey’s Pillar Alexandria

Pompey’s Pillar Alexandria information, tours, prices, booking

Pompey’s Pillar Alexandria is a Roman triumphal column in the city of Alexandria, Egypt. It is the largest of its type. In fact, it constructed outside of the imperial capitals of Rome and Constantinople. Pompey’s Pillar Alexandria is the only which known free-standing column in Roman Egypt. Moreover, it not composed of drums. It indeed is one of the largest ancient monoliths. Moreover, it is also one of the largest monolithic columns which ever erected. The monolithic column shaft measures 20.46 m in height with a diameter of 2.71 m at its base. The weight of the single piece of red Aswan granite estimated at 285 ton. Pompey’s Pillar Alexandria is 26.85 m high including its base and capital.

Other authors give slightly deviating dimensions. It dates back to the time of Pompey. The Corinthian column actually built in 297 AC. It commemorate the victory of Roman emperor Diocletian over an Alexandrian revolt. The Emperor Diocletian erected this memorial column. Pompey’s Pillar Alexandria erected in honor of the Roman Emperor, as a sign of gratitude. A serious revolt in the city took place. Diocletian came himself, ordering the city to besieged. After 8 months of resistance, the city finally surrendered. As a result of the siege, there was famine in the city. The Emperor ordered that a part of the corn, which sent to Rome, given to the people of Alexandria. He exempted them from paying taxes during these hard times. For that they erected, in his honor the Pompey’s Pillar Alexandria .

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Crusaders believed, that ashes of the great Pompey were in a pot at the top of the column. It was in the middle ages the. In fact, it was a mistake. Thus today it called “Pompey’s Pillar”. Around the commemorative Column of Diocletian there are some monuments that can seen. On the backside, there is the remains of a Serapium, or a temple of the God Serapis. It now damaged. In fact, it built during the reigns of Ptolemy II and Ptolemy III. It damaged due to the revolts of the Jewish population in Alexandria. In fact, it was during the reign of the Emperor Trajan (89-118 A.C). Moreover, it rebuilt again during the reign of Hadrian (117-137 AC). It likely destroyed, once more, after the appearance of Christianity. Furthermore, it consisted of a high platform accessed by a staircase of 100 steps.

At the side of the platform there was a basin, which used for purification. There were 2 galleries at the back of the temple. In fact, they completely cut into the rock. In the 1st gallery a black statue of basalt, dates back to the reign of Hadrian discovered. It represents the God Serapis, in a shape of a bull. It now exhibited in the Graeco – Roman Museum in Alexandria. The second gallery known mistakenly as the Daughter Library. It seems that it was an Anubidiun, or a burial for the mummies of Anubis. It considered until the a reign of Ptolemy IV, a member of the Pantheon of Alexandria.

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Catacombs Kom El Shoqafa Alexandria Egypt

Catacombs Kom El Shoqafa Alexandria

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Catacombs Kom El Shoqafa means “Mound of Shards”. In fact, Catacombs Kom El Shoqafa Alexandria are a historical archaeological site located in Alexandria, Egypt. Moreover, Catacombs Kom El Shoqafa Alexandria are indeed one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. The necropolis of Catacombs Kom El Shoqafa Alexandria consists of a series of Alexandrian tombs. It also consists of statues and archaeological objects of the Pharaonic funeral cult. It is with Hellenistic and early Imperial Roman influences. The features of the Catacombs merge Roman, Greek and Egyptian cultural points. In fact, it was due the time. Some statues are Egyptian in style, yet bear Roman clothes and hair style. It is whilst other features share a similar style.

A circular staircase often used to transport deceased bodies down the middle of it. It leads down into the tombs. Tombs tunneled into the bedrock during the age of the Antonio emperors (2nd century AD). The facility then used as a burial chamber. It was from the 2nd century to the 4th century. It was before rediscovered in 1900 when a donkey accidentally fell into the access shaft. Three sarcophagi have found, along with other human and animal remains. They added later. It believed that the catacombs only intended for a single family. But it is unclear why the site expanded to house many other individuals. Catacombs Kom El Shoqafa Alexandria are also one of the seven medieval wonders of the world. It is according to some lists.

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One of the more gruesome features of the catacombs called Hall of Caracalla. According to tradition, this is a mass burial chamber. It was for the humans and animals whom massacred by order of the Emperor Caracalla in 215 AD. In fact, Catacombs Kom El Shoqafa Alexandria lie on the western necropolis of Alexandria. They consist of three levels cut through solid rock. The third level being now completely underwater. The catacombs have a six pillared central shaft which opens off the vestibule. On the left is a trillium. It is a funeral banquet hall where friends and family gathered on stone couches. They covered with cushions. Both at the time of burial and also on future commemorative visits.

In fact, a stone staircase descends to the second level, an area alive with sculptures. In the lobby of the building two pillars. They topped by the papyrus, lotus, and acanthus leaves of ancient Egypt. Two falcons flanking a winged sun decorate the frieze. Figures of a man and a woman carved into the wall. The man’s body has a stiff hieratic pose. It is typical of Ancient Egyptian sculpture. Moreover, it is with a head. The head carved in the lifelike manner of the classic Hellenes. The woman’s figure also posed but bears the Roman hairstyle. There are three huge stone coffins. They are with non-removable covers along the sides of the chamber. In fact, it assumed that bodies inserted in them from behind. They using a passageway which runs around the outside of the funeral chamber.

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There is a hallway with deep walls in the central tomb chamber. It is with carved recesses. In fact, each one provides burial space for three mummies. Visitors can reach the first level through a breach in the rotunda wall, which made at an unknown date. This leads to the Hall of Caracalla, in this hall the bones of horses and humans found. Catacombs named Kom El Shoqafa because the area used to contain a mound of shards of Terra cotta. It consisted of jars and objects made of clay. These objects left by those visiting the tombs. Who would bring food and wine for their consumption during the visit. They did not wish to carry these containers home from this place of death so they would break them. So at the time of the discovery, heaps of these broken plates found.

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