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Memphis Cairo Egypt

Memphis Cairo Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

Memphis Cairo Egypt was a city and the capital of Ancient Egypt. It indeed was an important center during much of Egyptian history. Memphis Cairo Egypt located south of the Nile River delta. It is on the west bank of the river. Memphis Cairo Egypt is about 15 miles (24 km) south of modern Cairo. Moreover, its archaeological zone designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979. It founded about 2925 BC by Menes. Menes united the two prehistoric kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. The original name of the city was the White Walls. The modern name of Memphis is a Greek version of the Egyptian Men-Nefer. This name is of the nearby pyramid king Pepi I.

Ptah was the local god of Memphis Cairo Egypt. He was a patron of craftsmen and artisans. Furthermore, he was also a creator god. The great temple of Ptah was one of the city’s most prominent structures. He created humans through the power of his heart and speech. Memphis Cairo Egypt reached preeminence by the third dynasty. The huge royal pyramid tombs of this period in the necropolises of Memphis Cairo Egypt indeed confirm this. Djoser was the second king of the third dynasty. He also was the builder of the Step Pyramid in Sakkara. Sakkara is the earliest royal foundation at Memphis Cairo Egypt. Moreover, it is also the first important stone building in Egypt.

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Imhotep was the king’s architect and adviser. He credited with this architectural feat. He also was wise man and physician. His reputation led to his deification and his identification with the Greek god Asclepius. There are remains of several unfinished or ruined pyramids near Memphis Cairo Egypt. They have attributed to other 3rd dynasty kings. The first king of the 4th dynasty was Snefru. He built two pyramid tombs at Dahshur. The last known king of this dynasty was Shepseskaf. He built his tomb at south Sakkara.  In fact, it was not a pyramid but a distinctive oblong structure with sloping sides.

In fact, the royal pyramids surrounded by large cemeteries. They are where the courtiers and officials who had served the king during his lifetime buried. The beautiful reliefs in certain of these tombs include scenes of daily life. Thus it gives some idea of the crafts, costumes, and occupations of the royal court of Memphis Cairo Egypt. These reliefs are a valuable source of information on such subjects. An exception to the general rule of loss and destruction which is the hidden tomb of Queen Hetepheres. She was the mother of Khufu. Her tomb discovered near the Great Pyramid of Giza. Though the queen’s body was missing from her sarcophagus. Moreover, Her funerary equipment and furniture survived.

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In fact, some scholars believe that Old Kingdom influenced by the craftsmen of the Memphis Cairo Egypt court. The kings of the 5th dynasty (2465 BC – 2325 BC) moved south of Giza to build their funerary monuments. The pyramid temples and causeways decorated with fine reliefs. This dynasty marked by a decline of Memphis influence. It paralleling the rise of a sun cult centered at Heliopolis. The major monuments of the period are not the pyramids but the sun temples. The pyramid field of Sakkara continued to decline in size and workmanship. It was during the 6th dynasty.

At that time the influence of the centralized government at Memphis Cairo Egypt began to wane. It indicated by the increased prominence of provincial cities. It was also by the number of fine tombs which located away from the Memphis Cairo Egypt area. This process of decentralization ended in the First Intermediate Period. Another period of political and social chaos followed the 13th dynasty. Second Intermediate Period characterized by the presence in Egypt of the Asian Hyksos peoples. The Hyksos king, whom he calls Salitis made his capital at Memphis. From there, he ruled both Upper and Lower Egypt. But his capital generally supposed to locate at Avaris, near Tanis, in the Nile delta.

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The importance of Memphis Cairo Egypt based to an extent on its venerable religious role. Certain of the coronation ceremonies enacted in Memphis Cairo Egypt. The Heb-Sed festival is a jubilee which celebrated by the king after 30 years of rule. It repeated every three years thereafter. Perhaps it was a ritual reenactment of the unification of Egypt. During the New Kingdom, Memphis Cairo Egypt functioned as the second, or northern, capital of Egypt. At one time it seemed to have been the principal residence of the crown prince. Several 18th-dynasty inscriptions mention royal hunting parties in the desert near the Sphinx. Amenhotep II born at Memphis Cairo Egypt. He held the office of high priest there. Both he and his son, Thutmose IV reigned 1400–1390 BC. He left inscriptions at Giza.

Despite the rise of the god Amon of Thebes, Ptah remained one of the principal gods of the pantheon. The great temple of Ptah added to or rebuilt by every king of the 18th dynasty. Chapels constructed by Thutmose I, Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III. Amenhotep III’s son was the religious reformer Akhenaton. He built a temple to his god, Aton, in Memphis Cairo Egypt. There are many tombs dating back to this period in the Memphis Cairo Egypt necropolis. They testify to the existence of a sizable court. During the New Kingdom Memphis Cairo Egypt shared the cosmopolitan character of the nation. It shared as trade, foreign conquest and travel developed. Though Memphis Cairo Egypt was not on the Nile. It connected with the Nile by a canal and it was important as a commercial center.

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In fact, Specific quarters of Memphis city named for the foreign colonies who resided there. They were like slaves, prisoners of war, or merchants. Under the 19th dynasty, a new royal house built farther north at Per Ramessu in the delta. But Memphis Cairo Egypt continued to be important. The great temple of Ptah rebuilt. The kings of that period pillaged the monuments of their predecessors for building materials. Furthermore, Some of the reused blocks come from Memphis necropolises. Ramses II who reigned from 1279–13 BC, erected several colossi in the temple. The Serapeum dedicated to the cult of Apis, the bull-god. It built in the form of a labyrinth. It begun under the son of Ramses II, Khaemwese, high priest of Ptah.

By the end of the 20th dynasty (1190–1075 BC) the united kingdom had begun to break down once again. The official capitals were Tanis and Thebes. But the royal palace at Memphis Cairo Egypt also continued to mentioned. The growing popularity of the Apis cult led to further enlargement of the Serapeum. In addition, in the 8th century BC, the Nubian king Piye conquered Egypt and restored its unity. Nubia (Kush) is to the south of Egypt. It had been under Egyptian political and cultural influence for centuries.

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An inscription describing Piye’s campaign has survived, and it mentions a siege of Memphis Cairo Egypt. The city had fortified walls and surrounded by water, presumably from its encircling canals. Piye took the city, but it left to his brother and successor, Shabaka, to claim the royal title. There are some indications that this king made Memphis his capital. But the Kushite dynasty overthrown shortly thereafter. In fact, it was when the Assyrians invaded Egypt.

The siege and destruction of Memphis  Cairo Egyptwas because of the royal house of one Tarku (Taharqa). He was the king of Egypt. In addition, he became pharaoh in 690 BC. Taharqa regained Memphis, but he driven out of the city again by Ashurbanipal of Assyria. It was in 667/668 BC. The collapse of Assyria (612 BC) led to brief Egyptian independence. It was under the 26th dynasty. But in fact, it was not long before new invaders appeared. The Persian Cambyses II took Memphis by siege in 525 BC. After years of Persian rule, Egypt was ready to welcome Alexander the Great in 332 BC. The conqueror used Memphis as his headquarters. It was while making plans for his new city of Alexandria. After his death at Babylon, his body brought to Egypt. He laid to rest in Memphis Cairo Egypt before buried at Alexandria.

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Under the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty (332–30 BC), Memphis Cairo Egyptretained its cosmopolitan character. It had a sizable Greek population. Some of the diversified racial types to found in the city during Greco-Roman times. They depicted in a series of striking terra-cotta heads dating from this period. At the beginning of the Roman period, Memphis was still an important provincial capital. The serious decay of the ancient city began after the rise of Christianity. In brief, it was when zealots of that faith defaced and destroyed the remaining pagan temples.

Additionally, the Christian monastery of Apa Jeremias rose among the venerable tombs of Sakkara. It was in the 5th century. Therefore, the capital continued to deteriorate. It was receiving its death blow during the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640 AC. Furthermore, a garrison and fort called Babylon occupied the eastern end of the bridge. This bridge crossed the Nile from Memphis. After a long siege the fortress taken by the Arab general Amr ibn Al Aas.

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Memphis Cairo Egypt abandoned, and later the few remaining structures dismantled. So that the stone maybe reused in the neighboring villages and in Cairo. It was after that city’s founding in the 10th century. The ancient city of Memphis Cairo Egypt lies near the modern village of Mit Ruhaynah. At the beginning of the 20th century some ruined walls still seen. The only monument above ground is a colossal statue of Ramses II. It was once adorned the great temple of Ptah.

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8 day Egypt tour Cairo, Alexandria, Nile cruise Egypt family package tours

Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt

Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

The Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt is a huge creature with the head of a human and a lion’s body. In fact, the the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt sits in a depression. The depression is to the south of Khafre’s pyramid at Giza. The Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt statue is the first colossal royal sculpture in Egypt. It is a national symbol of Egypt, both ancient and modern. Moreover, it stirred the imagination of poets, scholars, adventurers and tourists for centuries. It also inspired a wealth of speculation about its age, its meaning, and the secrets that it might hold. The Sphinx word means strangler. It first given by the Greeks to a fabulous creature. It is which had the head of a woman, the body of a lion and the wings of a bird.

In Egypt, there are many sphinxes. They are usually with the head of a king wearing his headdress and the body of a lion. There are sphinxes with ram heads that associated with the god Amun. The Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt is to the northeast of Khafre’s (Chephren) Valley Temple. It is where it sits was once a quarry. Khafre’s workers shaped the stone into the lion and gave it their king’s face over 4,500 years ago. Khafre’s name also mentioned on the Dream Stele, which sits between the paws of the great beast. No one is certain about the fact the face of Sphinx. Recently, it has argued that Khufu maybe also had the Great Sphinx built. Khufu is the builder of the Great Pyramid.

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The the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt indeed is the most immense stone sculpture which ever made by man. Moreover, it is not an isolated monument. It must examined in the context of its surroundings. The Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt is a complex which consists of the great statue itself and an old temple. It also consists of a New Kingdom temple and some other small structures. Great Sphinx related to Khafre’s Valley Temple. Khafre’s Valley itself had four colossal sphinx statues. Each is more than 26 feet long. The material of the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt is the limestone bedrock. It is of what geologists call the Muqqatam Formation. Moreover, it originated fifty million years ago. It is from sediments which deposited at the bottom of sea waters.

An embankment formed along what is now the north-northwest side of the plateau. Nummulites are small and disk-shaped fossils. They named after the Latin word for ‘coin’, pack the embankment. These were once the shells of now extinct plank-tonic organisms. There was a shoal and coral reef that grew over the southern slope of the embankment. The ancient Egyptians built the the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt from Carbonate mud. It deposited in the lagoon petrified into the layers fifty million years ago. They trenched out a deep, U-shaped ditch. This is to isolate a huge rectangular bedrock block for carving the Sphinx. This enclosure is deepest immediately around the body. It is with a shelf at the rear of the monument. It left unfinished. A shallower extension to the north where important archaeological finds have made.

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There are hard limestone lays around the Sphinx’s head. It was all quarried for blocks to build the pyramids. The limestone removed to shape the body of the beast. It employed to build the two temples to the east of the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt. There is one in front of the paws. The other to the south of the first one. They are on a terrace lower than the floor of the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt enclosure. The quarrying around the original knoll revealed rock. It was too poor in quality for construction. Some visionary individual conceived of the plan to turn what left of the knoll into the Sphinx. The Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt may well have planned from the start for this location, good rock or bad. The walls of the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt enclosure are of the same characteristics.

The strata of the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt body and exhibit similar states of erosion. The bedrock body of the Great Sphinx became a standing section of the deeper limestone layers of Giza Plateau. The lowest stratum of the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt is the hard and brittle rock of the ancient reef. It referred as Member I. All the geological layers slope about three degrees from northwest to southeast. They are higher at the rump of the Sphinx and lower at the front paws. The surface of this area has not weathered compared to the layers above it. Most of the Sphinx’s lion body carved into the Member II. The body parts are the south wall and the upper part of the ditch. It consists of seven layers. They are soft near the bottom and harder near the top. The rock actually alternates between hard and soft.

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The head and neck of the the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt made of Member III. It is better stone, though it becomes harder further up. The Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt faces the rising sun with a temple to the front. It resembles the sun temples which built later by the kings of the 5th Dynasty. The lion was a solar symbol in more than one ancient Near Eastern culture. The royal human head on a lion’s body symbolized power. It controlled by the intelligence of the pharaoh or ma’at. Its symbolism survived for 2500 years in the iconography of Egyptian civilization. The head and face of the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt reflect a style that belongs to Egypt’s Old Kingdom.

The form of the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt face is broad. It is almost square with a broad chin. The headdress has fold over the top of the head. It has triangular planes behind the ears. Moreover, it has presence of the royal ‘uraeus’ cobra on the brow. It also has treatment of the eyes and lips. They are all evidences that the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt carved during this period. The sculptures of kings Djedefre, Khafre and Menkaure show the same configuration on the Sphinx. Some scholars believe that the the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt bearded with the sort of plaited beard. Pieces of the Sphinx’s massive beard adorn the British Museum in London. They are also in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The rounded divine beard is an innovation of the New Kingdom.

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According to Rainer Stadelmann, did not exist in the Old or Middle Kingdom. It may have added to identify the god with Horemahket. There is a hole in the top of the head. It now filled in. It once provided support for extra head decoration. The top of the head is flatter than later Egyptian sphinxes. The body of the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt is 72.55 meters in length and 20.22 meters tall. The face of the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt is four meters wide and its eyes are two meters high. The mouth is about two meters wide. The nose would have been more than 1.5 meters long. The ears are well over one meter high. Part of the Uraeus (sacred cobra), the nose, the lower ear and the ritual beard are now missing. The eyes have pecked out.

Below the neck, the Great Sphinx has the body of a lion, with paws, claws and tail. The tail curled round the right haunch. It sit on the bedrock of the rocky enclosure out of which the monument has carved. The enclosure has taller walls to the west and south of the monument. It keeps with the present lie of the land. When viewed close-up, the head and body of Great Sphinx look well proportioned. Seeing from further away and side-on the head looks small in relation to the long body. In its undamaged state, the body is likely to have appeared still larger all around. It is in relation to the head which has not reduced as much by erosion. The human head is on a scale of about 30:1. The lion body is on the smaller scale of 22:1. There could be many of explanations for this discrepancy.

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The Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt maybe sculpted to look its best when seen from close by. It is while and more or less from the front. There is also the possibility that there was insufficient good rock to make the head. The fissure at the rear of the Great Sphinx maybe dictated a longer body, rather than one much too short. There are three passages into or under the Sphinx, two of them are of obscure origin. The one of known cause is a short dead-end shaft behind the head drilled in the nineteenth century. No other tunnels or chambers in or under the Sphinx known to exist. Many small holes in the Sphinx body may relate to scaffolding at the time of carving. The figure buried for most of its life in the sand.

It was King Thutmose IV (1425 – 1417 BC) who placed a Stela between the front paws of the figure. On it, Thutmose describes an event, while he was still a prince. He went for hunting and fell asleep in the shade of the sphinx. During a dream, the sphinx spoke to Thutmose and told him to clear away the sand. The sphinx told him that if he did this, he would rewarded with the kingship of Egypt. Thutmose carried out this request and the sphinx held up his end of the bargain. Of course, over time, the the Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt found itself buried beneath the sand. When Napoleon arrived in Egypt in 1798, Great Sphinx buried once more with sand up to its neck. The nose had been missing for at least 400 years.

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Between 1816 and 1817, the Genoese merchant, Caviglia tried to clear away the sand. He only managed to dig a trench down the chest of the statue and along the length of the fore-paws. Auguste Mariette is the founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. He also attempted to excavate the Sphinx. Moreover, he gave up in frustration over the enormous amount of sand. He went on to explore the Khafre Valley Temple. Furthermore, he returned to the Great Sphinx to excavate in 1858. Between 1925 and 1936, French engineer Emile Baraize excavated the Sphinx. It was behalf of the Antiquities Service. The great beast once again became exposed to the elements. In fact, the sand has been its savior. It is since built of soft sandstone. The Great Sphinx of Giza Egypt crumbles today because of the wind, humidity and the smog from Cairo.

The rock was of poor quality here from the start. It fissures along joint lines and dated back to the formation of the limestone millions years ago. There is a particularly large fissure across the haunches. It nowadays filled with cement. Moreover, it also shows up in the walls of the enclosure. It is in where the Sphinx sits. Below the head, serious natural erosion begins. The neck weathered by wind-blown sand. The stone here is not quite of such good quality as that of the head above. Erosion below the neck does not look like scouring by wind-blown sand. In fact, so poor is the rock of the bulk of the body. It deteriorated since the day it carved out of the stone. In fact, it needed repairs on more than one occasion in antiquity. Today, there is much of the work on the Great Sphinx.

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Giza Plateau Cairo Egypt

Giza Plateau Cairo Egypt

Giza Plateau Cairo Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

Giza Plateau Cairo is a plateau which located in Giza, Egypt. The famous Giza Necropolis located in this geographical area. It characterized by a sandy, desert climate and terrain with little vegetation. Khufu became the king of Egypt after the death of his father Sneferu. There was no convenient space remaining for Khufu’s own pyramid complex at Dahshur. It is where Sneferu buried. Khufu moved his court and residence farther north. Giza Plateau Cairo located only a few kilometers south of Cairo. It is several hundred meters from the last houses in the southernmost part of the city proper. Giza Plateau Cairo is where a limestone cliff rises from the other side of a sandy desert plateau. The ancient Egyptians called this place Imentet or kher neter.

In fact, Giza Plateau Cairo is a part of the Middle Eocene Mokattam Formation. This is according to a treatise on the geology of Giza Plateau Cairo. Moreover, it dips southeast, comprising limestone and dolomite. To the south are the Mokattam and dolomite limestone. They are overlain by the limestone and sandy marl of the Upper Eocene Maadi Formation. To the north and east is the Mokattam Formation. It characterized by two steep escarpments about 30 meters (92 feet) high. Moreover, it continues to the Great Sphinx ditch. It must at one time formed a high peak. From there, the stonemasons cut the core blocks for the Great Pyramid. The older pyramids of the third and early fourth dynasty built on thick layers of marl and slate. These marl layers were easier to dig than limestone.

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In fact, excavation of the large shafts extended about 30 meters beneath the step pyramids. Moreover, it accomplished in a reasonable time. However, there was also a serious disadvantage. It was because the marl layers could not support their weight. The under-layer gave way, and the construction became unstable. This in fact happened with the South Pyramid at Dahshur. It is where cracks and serious damage appeared in the corridor system and in the chambers. That is why the pyramid had to abandoned. Khufu planned his own ambitious pyramid. He looked for a solid rock base nearby quarries and a dominating position overlooking the Nile Valley. He of course found it at Giza Plateau Cairo. In fact, Giza Plateau Cairo subdivided into two groupings of monuments, defined and separated by a wadi.

The larger grouping consists of the three Great pyramids of Khufu, Chephren and Menkaure. Moreover, it also includes Great Sphinx and the private mastabas of the nobility. The second grouping, located on the ridge to the southeast. It contains many private tombs of citizens of various classes. The majority of the monuments of the larger grouping made from limestone. It quarried and transported to the site. The tombs of the smaller grouping carved out of the native living rock. The three Great Pyramids are the most famous and prominent monuments at Giza Plateau Cairo. Giza Plateau Cairo was actually a Necropolis almost since the beginning of Pharaonic Egypt. A tomb just on the outskirts of Giza plateau dates back to the reign of the First Dynasty Pharaoh. Wadj Jar sealing discovered in a tomb in the southern part of Giza plateau Cairo. It mentions the Second Dynasty Pharaoh Ninetjer.

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To build his complex, he had to clear away many of the old tombs. He had to fill in their shafts or even destroy them. Khufu pyramid is the largest of all the pyramids in Egypt. The Khufu pyramid surpasses the Red pyramid at Dahshur built by only ten meters. The Red pyramid built by Khufu’s father father Snefru. On its southwest diagonal is the pyramid of Khufu’s son, Chephren (Khafre). Although it is smaller, a steeper angle results in the illusion that they are the same size. The Chephren’s pyramid appears taller since it is on higher ground. The notion that it done on purpose to out-do his father is without a question. It occupies the central point and has the illusion of greater size. It is still has some of its casing stones intact.

Mistaken to as the Great Pyramid, something would no doubt please Chephren in case he alive today. Along the southwest diagonal is the smallest of the three great pyramids. It is Menkaure pyramid. He is the son of Khafre. Menkaure pyramid is not entirely limestone. The uppermost portions are brick, much like the several Pyramids at Dahshur. One theory is that Menkaure died before completing his pyramid. The remaining construction hastily done to finish it in time for the burial. It is also not along the diagonal line that runs through the Great Pyramid and the Second Pyramid. It is a hundred meters to the southeast. An idea has emerged in the last few years. It says that the three large pyramids of Giza actually meant to be in an alignment.

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This to resemble the three “belt” stars in the constellation Orion. They are Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka. This theory discounted by the majority of Egyptologists. Some do believe it is a point to ponder. The center of the pyramid does not line up with its larger counterparts. The southeast sides of all three pyramids are in alignment. All three pyramids stand empty. They maybe plundered during the political unrest. The political unrest ended the Old Kingdom when the monarchy collapsed. Yet there are the occasional surprises. Airtight pits along the southern and eastern walls of Khufu’s pyramid contain boats. They were not small ritual boats. They are functional funerary barges with 40-ton displacements.

One of the excavated in 1954. It is now in the Solar boat museum. Exactly how big Giza Plateau Cairo is may never known. Excavations have continued to find new tombs and artifacts. Bezoni, Caviglia, Perring and Vyse began the first systematic study of Giza Plateau Cairo. It was in the early 1800s. Giza Plateau Cairo explored and excavated more thoroughly than any other site in Egypt. It is more than any other site in the world. Throughout the Old Kingdom, the cemetery of Giza Plateau Cairo remained the most prominent. It is even when the kings moved again to Southern Sakkara. Architects of the ‘Inti family’ continued to live in the pyramid town of Khufu. The had their family tombs at Giza plateau. Inti family constructed the pyramids of the 5th and 6th Dynasties.

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In fact, the pyramid town of Khufu and the cemetery of Giza both abandoned. It was during the First Intermediate Period. Moreover, they remained so during the Middle Kingdom. The pyramids opened and plundered. The private tombs not ignored by thieves either. Furthermore, the causeways and temples used as quarries by the architects of the kings of the 12th Dynasty. This all changed completely during the New Kingdom. The kings of the 18th Dynasty showed deep respect for the pyramids. Giza plateau gained considerable religious significance. It was as the center of royal worship to the Great Sphinx. Moreover, princes and kings of the 18th and 19th Dynasties erected stelae between the paws of the Sphinx.

It no longer seen as a royal statue. In fact, it seen as an image of the sun god Harmachis. Amenhotep II dedicated a small temple to Harcachis to the northeast of the Sphinx. On foundation tables of that temple, the Sphinx also named Harmachis-Hauron. Hauron was the name of a Syrian-Palestinian god of the netherworld. A community of Syrian-Palestinians living near the Great Sphinx identified with his image. Ramesses II installed a sanctuary within the forepaws of the Sphinx. In the Late period, Osiris became the dominant god of Giza Plateau Cairo. He took over the cult locations of Rostau from Sokar. He installed his cult in the Sphinx. Massive pedestals added to the body of the Sphinx. They are on which chapels of Osiris and Isis stood. Isis became known as the “Lady of the Pyramids”.

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During the Sixth century BC onward, Greek travelers admired the pyramids at Giza Plateau Cairo. They placed monuments in the list of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. After the Pharonic Period, stones from the monuments taken. They used to build buildings in nearby Cairo. First, the polished white limestone “casing” taken. And then the softer core stones taken. Many of Cairo’s oldest buildings built partly from stones from the pyramids. This destruction continued well into the Nineteenth Century. It was until preservation efforts and a resurgence of national pride put a stop to it. The pyramids not vandalized. They would still remain to this day much as they were when they built. As the saying goes, “Man fears Time, but Time fears the Pyramids”.

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Giza Camel Ride Cairo Egypt

Giza Camel Ride Egypt

Giza Camel Ride Cairo Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

Giza camel ride is a must-do for every first-time Egypt traveler. In fact, many people who visit Giza Plateau choose to go on a camel ride around the Pyramids. Yet a better idea is to explore the desert behind the Pyramids on the back of camel or horse. Moreover, you can do Giza camel ride tour before sunset to enjoy a magnificent view of the Pyramids. You will also enjoy the mystical and melodious Call to Prayer rising from hundreds of Mosques at the same time. It is also amazing to do Giza camel ride tour before sunrise. It takes about 2 hours around Pyramids are and the Great Sphinx. This area called Giza Plateau.

In fact, Giza Plateau is a plateau which located in Giza, Egypt. The famous Giza Necropolis located in this geographical area. Moreover, it characterized by a sandy, desert climate and terrain with little vegetation. Khufu became the king of Egypt after the death of his father Sneferu. Furthermore, there was no convenient space remaining for Khufu’s own pyramid complex at Dahshur. It is where Sneferu buried. Khufu moved his court and residence farther north. It is where his prospectors located a commanding rock cliff. In fact, Giza Plateau located only a few kilometers south of Cairo. Moreover, it is several hundred meters from the last houses in the southernmost part of the city proper. Giza Plateau is where a limestone cliff rises from the other side of a sandy desert plateau. The ancient Egyptians called this place Imentet or kher neter.

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In fact, Giza plateau is a part of the Middle Eocene Mokattam Formation. This is according to a treatise on the geology of Giza plateau. Moreover, it dips southeast, comprising limestone and dolomite. To the south are the Mokattam and dolomite limestone. They are overlain by the limestone and sandy marl of the Upper Eocene Maadi Formation. To the north and east is the Mokattam Formation. It characterized by two steep escarpments about 30 meters (92 feet) high. Moreover, it continues to the Great Sphinx ditch. It must at one time formed a high peak. From there, the stonemasons cut the core blocks for the Great Pyramid. The older pyramids of the third and early fourth dynasty built on thick layers of marl and slate. These marl layers were easier to dig than limestone.

But before going on a Giza Camel ride tour always agree on the price first. Only give a tip if you want to!

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Egyptian Museum Cairo Egypt tours from Serbia

Egyptian Museum Egypt

Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Egypt is one of the oldest museums in the world. In fact, the Egyptian Museum in Cairo has a long history which dates back to the 1825. It was when Mohamed Ali Pasha issued a decree to establish a museum for the antiquities. Mohamed Ali Pasha was the ruler of Egypt at that time. The first location of the museum was in front of the Azabakeya Lake. Azabakeya Lake was between Opera Square and Ataba Square.

The rulers of Egypt in this period did not realize the real value of the antiquities. They also didn’t for ancient historical finds of Egypt. They gave them to the European tourists who visited Egypt. It was in the middle of the 19th century. The rest of the antiquities taken to an abandoned room in the Citadel. The Austrian Archduke Maximilian visited the Citadel. He was fond of the belongings of this room. Khedive Abbas, the ruler of Egypt at that time, gave the Archduke all the items that kept in the room. Afterwards Maximilian took theses antiquities with him to Austria. They are still there until today.

Further details about the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Egypt:

The recent Egyptian Museum located in Tahrir square. In fact, it is because of the efforts of the great Egyptolog man, Auguste Mariette. Egyptian Museum opened for public in the 15th of November 1902. Situated in front of the main entrance of the Egyptian Museum, a small artificial lake. It has some of the lotus and the papyrus plants. Papyrus is indeed the most important plant for the ancient Egyptians. The papyrus is that green long plant which used by the ancient Egyptians to produce papers. Furthermore, the words “paper” in English and the word “Papier” in French both derived from the word “Papyrus”.

In fact, the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities consists of two floors. The ground floor hosts the heavier displays. They are such as coffins, huge statues and also stone carvings. Moreover, the displays of this floor organized according to the historical periods. They are Old Kingdom, Intermediate Period and also New Kingdom. They also include Late Period Gareco Roman Period and the antiquities of the Nubia. The upper floor of the Egyptian Museum houses the lighter displays. The displays include gadgets and also tools. They include also funerary objects, smaller statues, papyrus papers, wooden coffins and jewelry. In addition, they also include jewelry. Moreover, they also include the displays of the Tut Ankh Amun tomb (Tutankhamen’s tomb).

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In fact, displays you must view at the Museum is the Narmer Plate or the Plate of the King Menes. The Narmer Plate is a large plate which made out of stone. It is the only remaining evidence that King Narmer was able to unify the two regions of Egypt. They are Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. The name of the King Menes inscribed at the two sides of the plate. In addition, King Menes portrayed on one side of the plate wearing the long white crown. He is about to beat a war prisoner with his hands. On the other side of the Narmer Plate, also the king portrayed. He wears the two crowns and walking with his followers. This to supervise the process of prosecuting the war prisoner.

The Displays of the Old Kingdom:

The displays of the Old Kingdom in the Egyptian Museum located to the left hand side of the entrance door. They are among the most remarkable among the whole displays of the museum. The Old Kingdom or the Pyramids builders period, is a section of the ancient Egyptian history. The achievements of this period are Pyramids of Giza, Zoser’s Step Pyramid and Dahshur Pyamid. The achievements also include Abu Sir Pyramids. The first capital of a unified Egypt founded by King Menes in the 32 nd century BC. It called Memphis and located nowadays to the South of Giza. In fact, the important Egyptian kings are King Menes, King Zoser and King Senefru. They are also King Chespos and King Khafre. They ruled over the country from Memphis.

In addition, there is a wonderful statue of King Khafre which made out of alabaster. It put on display in the second hall of the ground floor of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. There are also four heads of some of the relatives of the king. They also made out of limestone. The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities has also a collection of attractive smaller statues of servants. They are carrying out their everyday duties and responsibilities. There is also a statue of a woman grinding the grains. Beside her, there is a statue of a man getting the dough ready to produce beer.

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On the other side there is a man grilling a goose and beside him. There is also another man holding a large bag on his shoulder. In fact, these statues found in some of the tombs of the Nobles. They included these servants with them in their burial chambers. This is to serve them in the afterlife as they have served them during their lives. Moreover, the ground floor of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo also has a large collection of coffins. They made from different types of rocks and stones. They have notable decorations and carvings.

There are also the walls of the funerary chamber. They reconstructed after brought from one of the tombs of Sakkara. This piece is the best example of the magnificent art of the 6th dynasty of the Old Kingdom. The guests will view on the walls of the chamber a list of items. They show what the deceased might need in the after life.

The Old Kingdom considered one of the most powerful periods of the ancient Egyptians. This is why the guests will find huge statues that featured with the accuracy in their design and beauty. An example of this, is the wonderful statue of king Khafrae. In fact, it made out of the strong diorite stone. The Egyptian Museum has also a wonderful statue of the old kingdom. The statue is the sycamore wooden which made statue of the “Sheikh of the town”. Furthermore, it is one of the most important figures. The statue dates back to the ancient Egyptian. It still practiced until today.

The Displays of the Middle Kingdom:

The Egyptian Museum in Cairo also comprises ten notable statues that date back to the Middle Kingdom. The ten statues portray the King Senusret I and a king that belongs to the 12th dynasty. In fact, they all made out of limestone. There are also three other statues of Senusret which portrayed as a the god Osiris. They found near the El Lisht. It is an area near El Fayoum. The area is also near to Meidum Pyramid in Beni Suef. The Middle Kingdom period started in Egypt with the fall of the Old Kingdom. It was indeed a negative period of the ancient Egyptian history.

The living conditions of the Egyptians improved. It was in the beginning of the 12th dynasty rule. Moreover, the arts and industries have flourished. Another transition took place in Egypt once again. It is when the nobles fighting among each others. As a result, the living conditions getting worse once more. In fact, all these facts paved the way for the Hyksos to invade the country. The 17th dynasty came to rule over Egypt from Thebes. They started to fight these foreign invaders. It was until the King Ahmose was able to defeat the Hyksos and expel them out of Egypt. Ahmose founded the 18th dynasty, which is the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt.

The Displays of the New Kingdom:

The 18th dynasty is the first dynasty of the New Kingdom. It is indeed the greatest dynasties that ruled over Egypt. The most important rulers of this period are Queen Hatshepsut and King Amenhotep. They are also Ikhnaton and King Tut Ankh Amun. In fact, there are so many displays in the Egyptian Museum which date back to the New Kingdom. Among these there are several statues of the Goddess Hathour and the god Amun. Without doubt, they are the most famous god of ancient Egypt.

The displays of the New Kingdom also include a large collection of mummification tools. They also include chairs, wooden objects and crowns. Moreover, the displays also include a large collection of statues of gods, kings and queens. In fact, they date back to many different periods in the New Kingdom. There are also many remarkable statues of Queen Hatshepsut. Some of them portraying her in the shape of the Sphinx. The other shows her in the disguise of a man. There are also some notable statues of King Thutmose III, the successor of Hatshepsut. He is one of the most skillful military leaders of ancient Egypt. He called, the Napoleon of Egypt.

Egyptian Museum in Cairo operation hours:

The Egyptian Museum in Cairo opens daily from 9 am till 5 pm.
9:00 AM-2:00 PM during Ramadan month

Egyptian Museum ticket cost:

Egyptian: LE 4 (LE 2, students)
Foreign: LE 80 (LE 40, students)

Royal Mummies Room:
Egyptian: LE 10 (LE 5, students)
Foreign: LE 100 (LE 50, students)

Centennial Gallery:
Egyptian: LE 2 (LE 1, students)
Foreign: LE 10 (LE 5, students)

The Egyptian Museum location:

Midan al-Tahrir, Downtown Cairo

Egyptian Museum direction:

First by metro: Sadat Station, follow signs to Egyptian Museum exit and walk straight along the street.

Second car or taxi: Ask for “al-mat-haf al-masri”

Third by bus: Ask for “abdel minem-ryad”

The Egyptian Museum facilities:

Cafeteria, bank, post office, gift shop, library, children’s museum and school.

Taped audio guides are available in English, French and Arabic for LE 20. Go to the kiosk in the front foyer to purchase.

Membership in the Friends of the Egyptian Museum Cairo Egypt organization is available. Call for details (+20-(0)2-2579-4596).

Services for patrons with special needs:

An elevator, located to the right of Gallery R43 (Pre- and Early Dynastic). It is available for those unable to use the stairs. Ask the engineers in the office next to the elevator to activate it.
Guided tours for blind and low-vision patrons are available upon request (please phone in advance).

The Egyptian Museum contact information:

Phone: (+202) 25794596
Fax: (+202) 25794596
Email: egyptianmuseum@hotmail.com

NO PHOTOGRAPHY ALLOWED. Cameras must checked at building entrance.

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Babylon Fortress Cairo Egypt

Babylon Fortress Cairo Egypt

Information about Babylon Fortress Cairo, tours and Online Booking

Babylon Fortress Cairo was an ancient fortress city or castle in the Delta of Egypt. It located at Babylon in the area which today known as Old Cairo. In fact, Babylon Fortress Cairo situated in the Heliopolite Nome. It was upon the right bank of the Nile at latitude 30°N. Moreover, it was near the commencement of the Pharaonic Canal. Pharaonic Canal also called Ptolemy’s Canal and Trajan’s Canal. It was from the Nile to the Red Sea. Babylon Fortress Cairo was at the boundary between Lower and Middle Egypt. Furthermore, it was where the river craft paid tolls when ascending or descending the Nile. Diodorus ascribes the erection of the first fort to rebel Assyrian captives. In fact, it was in the reign of Sesostris.

The Romans built a new fortress with Roman red and white banded masonry nearer to the river. Within Babylon Fortress Cairo’ enclosure are the Coptic Museum, a convent and several Churches. This includes St. George Church, St. Barbara Church and Hanging Church. Babylon Fortress Cairo was the dominant city of Mesopotamia. Another possibility links the name to the ancient Pr-Hapi-n-Iwnw (Nile house of Heliopolis). It was the deity Hapy’s dwelling in Heliopolis city. Hapy was the divinity of the Nile. Heliopolis lay northeast of Memphis, on the east bank of the Nile. It is at latitude 30° N and near to the commencement of the Pharaonic Canal. Moreover, it was connecting the Nile to the Red Sea. Furthermore, it also was the boundary town between Lower and Middle Egypt. It was where the river craft paid tolls when ascending or descending the Nile.

Further details about Babylon Fortress Cairo:

According to tradition, the first fort built by the Persians in about the 6th century BC. At that time, it was on the cliffs near the river. When the Romans took possession of Egypt, they used the old fort for a while. They recognize its strategic importance on the Nile. The Roman Emperor Trajan relocated the fort to its present location. That was because of problems of water delivery. And which at that time was nearer to the River. Since then, the Nile’s course has moved some 400 meters (430 yards) to the north.

In the age of Augustus the, Deltaic Babylon became a town of some importance. It was the headquarters of the three legions which ensured the obedience of Egypt. In the Notitia Imperii, Babylon mentioned as the quarters of Legio XIII Gemina. Ruins of the town and fortress are still visible a little to the north of Fostat or Old Cairo. During the Arab invasion of Egypt, Babylon Fortress Cairo surrounded for about seven months. It was finally falling in April 641 to the Arab General Amr Ibn Al Aas.

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