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Activities in Ancient Cairo

Bent Pyramid Dahshur Cairo

Bent Pyramid Dahshur Egypt

Information about The Bent Pyramid Dahshur Cairo, tours, Booking

The Bent Pyramid Dahshur is an ancient Egyptian pyramid which located at the royal necropolis of Dahshur. In fact, it is 40 kilometers south of Cairo. The Bent Pyramid Dahshur built under the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Sneferu 2600 BC. Moreover, it indeed is a unique example of early pyramid development in Egypt. The Bent Pyramid Dahshur was the second pyramid which built by Sneferu. Furthermore, the Bent Pyramid Dahshur rises from the desert at a 54 degree inclination. The top section built at the shallower angle of 43 degrees. In fact, the Bent Pyramid Dahshur has ‘bent’ appearance. The Bent Pyramid Dahshur represents a transitional form between step-sided and smooth sided pyramids .

Moreover, the structure maybe begun to show signs of instability during construction. In fact, it was due to the steepness of the original angle of inclination. Furthermore, it forced the builders to adopt a shallower angle to avert the structure’s collapse. This theory based on that the adjacent Red Pyramid constructed at an angle of 43 degrees from its base. Red Pyramid built afterwards by the same Pharaoh. It contradicts the theory that at the initial angle the construction would take too long. It was because Sneferu’s death was nearing. That is why the builders changed the angle to complete the construction in time. The change of the angle made as a security precaution. It was reaction to a collapse of Meidum Pyramid while it was under construction.

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In fact, this theory suggested by Kurt Mendelssohn in 1974. Plan and elevation images of the Bent Pyramid Dahshur taken from a 3 dimension model. It is also unique among the ninety pyramids in Egypt. Its original polished limestone outer casing remains largely intact. Peter James was a British structural engineer. He attributes this to larger clearances between casing parts than used in later pyramids. These imperfections would work as expansion joints. They prevent the successive destruction of the outer casing by thermal expansion. The Bent Pyramid Dahshur has two entrances. The first one is low down on the north side. It is a large wooden stairway. It has built for the convenience of tourists. The second entrance is high on the west face of the pyramid. In fact, each entrance leads to a chamber with a high, cor-belled roof.

The northern entrance leads to a chamber. The chamber located below the ground level. The western entrance leads to a chamber built in the body of the pyramid itself. There is a hole in the roof of the northern chamber. It leads via a rough connecting passage to the passage from the western entrance. It accessed today by a high and rickety ladder 15 m (50 ft) long. The western entrance passage blocked by two stone blocks. They were not lowered vertically as in other pyramids. They slid down 45° ramps to block the passage. One of these lowered in antiquity. A hole has cut through it. The other remains propped up by a piece of ancient cedar wood. The connecting passage referenced above enters the passage between the two portcullises.

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Abusir Pyramids Cairo Egypt

Abusir Pyramids Cairo Egypt

Abusir Pyramids Cairo Egypt, tours, Booking

Abusir Pyramids Cairo located on the western bank of the Nile, 25 kilometer southwest of Cairo, Egypt. In fact, Abusir Pyramids consisted of fourteen pyramids from the 5th Dynasty. Moreover,  Abusir called the site of the forgotten kings of the 5th Dynasty. These kings do not have the fame of their predecessors from the 4th Dynasty. Abusir Pyramids in Cairo site closed for many years to visitors. But, it is now open to the public. A northern extension made to the Sakkara necropolis. It was sometime during the Fifth Dynasty. The extension in the area called Abusir. By this time, tombs on the grandiose scale of the Fourth Dynasty were nonexistent. It was due to the decentralization of power from the pharaoh and the increase in the power of the nobility.

In fact, Abusir was not an oft used royal burial site. Though, the tomb of the Third Dynasty King Sekhemkhet unearthed there. It was in the 1950s. Userkaf was the first pharaoh of the Fifth Dynasty. He built his pyramid at Sakkara. In addition,  four of his successors had also their tombs at Abusir. Yet Userkaf had built at Abusir before, not a tomb, but a temple. In fact, King Userkaf’s temple of the Sun is the earliest preserved Sun Temple in Egypt. Moreover,  it is one of only two from the Old Kingdom that remain. The other built by Neuserre at Abu Ghurob. It is the northernmost monument at Abusir. Its location somewhat removed from the other structures. Furthermore, Userkaf ruled for only seven years. That is why he was unable to complete the construction.

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In fact, the design of the temple is simple. The lack of relief decoration is a sharp contrast to the lavish temples that came later. It indeed modeled after the Sun Temple at Heliopolis. Furthermore, the Sun Temple is a second temple at a lower elevation. The temple also called the Valley Temple.  In fact, it is uncertain what function this temple had. It is because the Sun temple appears to be self-contained. Schott and Ricke have proposed that it connected with the worship of the goddess Neith. Goddess Neith cult became popular in the Memphis area during the Fifth Dynasty.

In fact, Abusir Pyramids are modest when compared to the mightiness of the Giza monuments. Indeed, they would be impressive if they completed. Moreover, the prime building material of Abusir Pyramids were the local limestone. Tura limestone used for casing stones and for relief work. Furthermore, the pathways and pavements made of black basalt. The columns and lintels made of red granite from Aswan. What the Abusir Pyramids lacked in grandiosity they made up for in aesthetic appeal. Nearby are the mastabas, the flat tombs of priests, nobles and prominent citizens. Rather than being “huddled up” near the base of the Pyramids, these grouped into their own areas. It was possibly by class or occupation. In fact, Abusir used only occasionally to bury pharaohs. Mastabas were popular burial site among certain classes, especially the priesthood.

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In fact, around fourteen Pyramids estimated to be at Abusir. But due to a degradation in construction methods, many have crumbled. It possibly to the point where they are now indistinguishable from the surrounding rubble. Many remain not found, but four of them excavated and studied . Moreover, of these four, only the Pyramids of Kings Sahure and Neferirkare are in stable condition. Niuserre pyramid has collapsed. Neferefre pyramid does not appear ever to have finished. Furthermore, Neferefre’s pyramid is not completely without merit. A Czech expedition working to excavate and restore Abusir. It found papyrus fragments in its mortuary temple.

In fact, Neferirkare’s pyramid was once much like the true Pyramids of Giza. The poor masonry and vandalism have left it looking more like the Step Pyramid of Zoser. In the Nineteenth century the famed Abusir papyri discovered nearby. They represented a monumental find. Papyri were everyday documents. They detailing finances, temples inventories, taxes, collections and expenditures. They also gave a focused look into the daily life and the work of the ancient Egyptians.

Here under more details about the four major Abusir Pyramids:

1-Sahura pyramid of Abusir Pyramids:

In fact, Sahura was the first to build himself a pyramid complex. It regarded as a milestone in the development of royal tombs. The dimensions of his pyramid are smaller than those of the forth dynasty pyramids. His mortuary and valley temples achieved greater importance. The funerary monument of Sahura from 2487-2475 BC. In fact, it is the most complete of the four royal burials at Abusir. It is the quintessential fifth Dynasty pyramid complex. Furthermore, it consists of valley temple, causeway, mortuary temple and pyramid. The imposing portico of the mortuary temple gave access to a large courtyard. It is with a well preserved basalt paved floor and a colonnade. The colonnade consists of sixteen red granite palm columns. They now destroyed.

The remains of the original limestone walls are fine painted decoration. They have transferred to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and the Bode museum in Berlin. The mortuary Temple designed with finely worked building materials. The red granite used for the palm columns. walls decorated with superb poly-chrome scenes in low relief. They showed mythical scenes of the ruler victories. The victories are in battle against Egypt’s traditional enemies. They also show hunting scenes and ships. Beyond the colonnade were a series of store rooms surrounding the ‘statue chamber’. They are where the king statues stood in niches. Next to the pyramid was the sanctuary with its alabaster altar. Sahure’s valley temple on the edge of the desert served as a landing place. It linked to the Nile by a canal. A causeway led from this temple to the mortuary temple.

2-Neferirkara Pyramid of Abusir Pyramids:

Neferirkara ruled from 2492-2482 BC. Neferirkara Pyramid located on the most elevated site in the cemetery. The pyramid changed in the course of construction from a stepped into a true pyramid. Its height is 74 meters. The pyramid left unfinished as a result of the rulers premature death . His mortuary temple constructed of mud bricks and wood. It was by his sons and heirs, Neferirkara and Newoserra .

At the end of the nineteenth century tomb robbers discovered a papyrus archive. It called the first Abusir Archive in the storage rooms of the• mortuary temple. The papyri date back to the reign of Issesi to that of Pepi II. It consists of rotas for temple personnel, inventories of cult objects and letters. These record date back to the last part of the fifth dynasty to the end of the sixth. Neferirkara’s causeway usurped by Nyuscrra. Nyuscrra diverted it to his own mortuary temple. On the southern side of Neferirkara pyramid is smaller pyramid complex. It belongs to his wife, Khentkawes II . Valuable finds from the queen’s mortuary temple have included many papyrus fragments.

3- Neferefre Pyramid of Abusir Pyramids in Cairo:

Neferirkare is the eldest son of Neferefre. He ruled for only two years. His unfinished pyramid changed into a mastaba. An architectural unique mortuary temple built of mud bricks. A cult abattoir, known as “the Sanctuary of the Knife.”. It connected with that mortuary temple. Fragments of pyramid foundations have uncovered between Sahure’s pyramid and Userkar’s sun temple. They attributed to Neferefre’s ephemeral successor.

4- Nyuserre Ini’s Pyramid of Abusir Pyramids in Cairo Egypt:

Newoserra built his pyramid at the northeastern corner of Neferirkare Pyramid. The open courtyard of Nyuserre Ini mortuary temple adorned with Papyrus-form. Th columns made of red granite with relief decoration. Repulnub, does not appear to buried in the vicinity of her husband’s tomb. Her tomb may be one of the pyramid complexes that constructed in that time. Excavations in pyramid 24 have provided valuable information about its mode or construction. The name of its owner remains unknown. Nyuserre Ini’s successor, Mekauhor, abandoned the Abusir necropolis. Other members of the royal family of that time also buried in the vicinity of the pyramids.

The largest of their tombs belonged to the vizier Ptahshepses. Nyuserre Ini’s son-in-Iaw; that twice extended mastaba almost rivaled the royal complexes in size. During the First Intermediate Period. There were no royal mortuary cults at Abusir. Although brieny revived at the beginning of the Middle Kingdom. From this period to the late period, Abusir became a cemetery for the common people. A cemetery in southwestern Abusir built to contain huge shaft tombs. They date back to the end of the twenty sixth dynasty. Among them was the tomb of Udjahorresnet. Chancellor of Egypt Persian kings. His tomb constructed with a cunning system of linked shafts and filled with sand. This supposed to prevent access to the burial chamber.

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Red Pyramid Dahshur Cairo

Red Pyramid Dahshur Cairo Egypt

Red Pyramid Dahshur Cairo information, tours, prices, booking

The Red Pyramid Dahshur Cairo has the largest base after Khufu pyramid. It located 40 kilometers south of Cairo. Each side of the Red Pyramid Dahshur Cairo measures 722 feet. Moreover, its sides sloping at 43 degrees 22′. The Red Pyramid Dahshur Cairo is the fourth highest pyramid which built in Egypt. It has 160 layers of stone. In fact, the Red Pyramid Dahshur Cairo was the first successful, true, cased Pyramid which built in Egypt. The Red Pyramid Dahshur Cairo built by Snefru who was Khufus’s father. Moreover, it has no crowds and circus atmosphere like the Giza Plateau. Moreover, it currently entered without limitation. It is only a short drive from Sakkara and only a brief drive from Cairo.

In fact, the Red Pyramid gets its name from the reddish limestone which used to build most of its core. Moreover, it also sometimes referred to as the Shining or Northern Pyramid. Several layers of fine white limestone used to lay the pyramid’s foundation. It was the learning from prior mistakes of earlier pyramids. Tura limestone used as casing stone to cover the pyramid. Though some casing still remains, most has removed. Every twentieth casing stone discovered had inscriptions on the back sides. Some inscribed with the cartouche of Snefru. The others had inscriptions in red paint naming the various work crews.

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In fact, they are such as the “Green Gang” or the “Western Gang”. Snefru’s cartouche was an important discovery. It was since there are no identifying inscriptions within the pyramid. Perhaps greater importance is the fact that some of the casing dated. It gives clues to how long the pyramid took to build. It is also the sequence of work that took place. According to this, the pyramid begun between 22-29 year of Snefru’s reign. Within four years, 30 percent of Red Pyramid had completed. The entire pyramid finished in about seventeen years.

East of the Red Pyramid Dahshur Cairo is what remains of a mortuary temple. Besides to the first capstone (Pyramidion) ever found belonging to an Old Kingdom Pyramid. It recovered in fragments and reconstructed. The mortuary temple itself is significant. It was because Snefru pioneered the east west alignment of Egyptian Temples to match the path of the sun. Like most Egyptian Pyramids, the only entrance is in the north side. Furthermore, it leads to a 206 foot passage descends at an angle of 27 degrees to the first chamber. The first chamber has a cor-belled (step) ceiling with a height of about 40 feet. In fact, all three of the chambers in this pyramid have cor-belled ceilings. They are with between eleven and fourteen layers.

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Even with some two million tones of stone above, this ceiling design is so strong. In fact, there are no cracks or structural problems even today. Moreover, a short passage on the south side of the first chamber leads to a second chamber. These first two chambers located at the ground level. The third chamber is higher. Moreover, it built within the masonry of the pyramid itself. The second chamber is unusual. It lies under the apex of the pyramid, or center point of the pyramid. It is one of the only Pyramids in Egypt to have this design layout. The final chamber has an entrance passageway. It is about 25 feet above the floor of the second chamber. It can accessed by a staircase (of modern construction).

Furthermore, the passageway leads to the final chamber is 23 feet long. Egyptology men believe this final chamber intended to be the actual burial chamber. Moreover, the room is approximately 14 feet by 27 feet. Its cor-belled ceiling rising to a height of 50 feet. The floor has excavated in an unsuccessful attempt to find other passageways.

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Solar Boat Museum Cairo Egypt

Solar Boat Museum Cairo

Solar Boat Museum Cairo information, tours, prices, booking

Solar Boat museum in Cairo located next to the Great Pyramid of Cheops. In fact,  the Solar Boat Museum constructed around 1985 to house the Solar boat of Khufu. When King Cheops passed away and his body mummified, the priests placed his body in this boat. It was to go on a journey. The journey was to visit Heliopolis and other cities before he land in his royal necropolis in Giza. Afterwards, the priests dissembled the boat into smaller pieces. And then, they buried these pieces near the pyramids and titled it as the Boat of Cheops. Solar boat Cairo discovered in the year 1954. It was near the Great Pyramid of Giza. The Solar boat Cairo consists of 1224 pieces of wood. Moreover, the boat is 44 meters long and around 5.9 meters wide. It has 12 paddles.

A compartment that stands upon three circular columns located at the stern of the boat. This compartment has a double ceiling based upon some pillars. Furthermore, it made in the shape of the papyrus plants. The function of this compartment was to protect the captain of the boat against the sun rays. After the discovery of the boat, a certain structure built to preserve the Solar boat Cairo. There were also laboratories to handle the pieces of it. The ancient Egyptians were indeed skillful workers and clever builders. They had the exact location of each piece of wood carved on it. It of course written in the Hieroglyphic language.

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In fact, the different pieces of the solar boat Cairo put in 14 layers. It was also with a layer of rocks in the bottom. In fact, it was to prevent humidity to affect the wooden parts of the Solar boat Cairo. Furthermore, the rocks also protected the pieces of wood against wind and water leakage for more than 24 centuries. Modern scientific studies recently carried out on the wood of the Solar boat Cairo. The wood is indeed 7000 years old before cut and used in the boat. Some scientific theories assert that the age of the solar boat is not less than 12000 years. The boat has twelve paddles. Five of them used for rowing from each side.

Four of them made in the shape of a bayonet. They used by the unseen sailors to protect the boat in its journey to the other world. In fact, this journey to the other world is according to the ancient Egyptian methods. There were also two paddles which used to correct the path of the boat the same way the rudder functions. The boat had a primitive yet intelligent tool. It is to examine the depths where the boat is sailing. Moreover, it was to prevent it from hitting any sand islands or beaches. This tool manufactured in the shape of the two plants. They are the Lotus and the Papyrus. In fact, this tool was also to guide towards the western direction.

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This to unify with the sun rays before it vanishes at the time of the sunset. Scientific studies still carried out until today. They aim to know whether the Solar boat only used as a symbol of the journey or not. The journey of the god Ra, the god of the sun, in his day and night journeys. The sun god Ra used to get benefit from the stars and their position to row. It also used to travel from one place to another. Moreover, it was necessary to establish the museum over the hole where the boat found. In the same time, the museum had to fit with the large size of the solar boat Cairo. In fact, the museum equipped with most modern techniques and technologies. It is also to preserve the solar boat for the new generations.

Furthermore, a complete air conditioning system added to Solar Boat museum in Cairo. It is also to always keep the right temperature and the right degree of humidity. In fact, the museum constructed to contain three floors. It is to enable the visitors to view the boat from three different levels. The solar boat in Cairo put on display in the center of the main hall of the museum. The hall is in the first floor. The boat placed on a base that was around 8 meters higher than the floor. In addition, in the ground floor of the museum, guests can view the bottom of the boat. The Solar boats of ancient Egyptians consist of large ships. They made out of cedar wood.

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They used them in religious rituals during the Pharaohs time. The civil engineer who was in charge of cleaning up the area of the Pyramids of Giza was Kamal Al Mallakh. The supervisor of the cleaning process of the area was Doctor Abdel Men’em Abu Bakr. While finishing their work at the pyramids, they found out what seemed to be a wall. It made out of limestone. After a lot of digging in the ground, they reached the bottom of the wall. They found 42 pieces of rock. They divided into two groups to protect them against any outer dangers or harm. On the 26th of May 1954, the nozzle of the hole where the pieces of the solar boat opened.

Everybody there smelled the distinctive scent of the cedar wood. Doctor Al Mallakh was the first one to view this great archaeological finding. It was when he reflected the rays of the sun inside the hole. He was first one to view the boat and smell its cedar wood. It was after more than 5000 years of buried under the sand. This was why Doctor Al Mallakh has credited to be the discoverer of the solar boat.

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Sphinx Sound Light Show Cairo Egypt

Sound Light Show at Sphinx Plateau

Sphinx Sound Light Show Cairo information, tours, prices, booking

Sphinx Sound Light Show takes place on the Giza plateau, around 30 minutes from Cairo. The one hour show is by many languages. It begins with the illumination of the Sphinx. Great Sphinx narrates the history of the pyramids and their builders. Moreover, Sphinx Sound Light Show uses laser beams and light projections. Furthermore, it is on the walls of the Mummification Temple. It is also on desert sands, pyramid walls and the Sphinx itself. It really is a condensed story of Egypt which unfolds. The accompanying soundtrack complements the surroundings. The voice of the Sphinx is dramatic and mysterious!

Have you ever wondered how life was thousands of years ago?. This question and others similar thoughts inspired creators to get you for a short while to the past. It will be by introducing the sound and light show. It indeed is a magnificent show that brings to life the rule of ancient Egyptians. The artists created a show to present images of all historical eras. For an hour, you enjoy Sphinx Sound Light Show near the Pyramids and the Sphinx. The history is re told by the Sphinx, telling you the most ancient secrets of the world. In the 21st century, you go back in time thousands of years ago to see how they built and survived!. The show manages to convey the great humane spirit and creativity behind their creation.

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In fact, there you will find the pyramid of Khufu, the Immortal and Sky Grabber. They are close to its some alters. It is where the wood made boats of Khufu placed. And which King Khufu would use to sail on his journey to immortality. Moreover, you will also find the pyramid built by Khufu’s son Khafre. He made his own smaller and shorter than his father’s pyramid. In fact, you can see Khafre’s face, engraved on a sheet of green diorite stone. So lively as if the artist just finished it. Then, last but not least the pyramid of Menkaure. He was like his father. In fact, he was modest and decent enough to make his pyramid smaller than the other two. Sphinx Sound Light Show narrate the history of those great kings. It also does for their secrets, legends and secrets of ancient history.

For more information & Show Schedule, please visit the Official website.

Tel: (+202)33857320 – (+202)33847823 – (+202)33867374

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Sakkara Cairo Egypt Saqqara Giza Egypt

Sakkara Cairo Egypt

Sakkara Cairo Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

Sakkara Cairo is a section of the great necropolis of Memphis. Memphis was the Old Kingdom capital. The kings of the first and second dynasties buried in this section of the Memphis necropolis. In fact, it has constant interest to Egyptology men. In fact, three major discoveries made at Sakkara Cairo. They are a prime minister’s tomb, a queen’s pyramid, and the tomb of the son of a dynasty founding king. Each discovery has a fascinating story. It is with many adventures for the archaeologists who revealed the secrets of the past. Sakkara Cairo is famous for Zoser Step Pyramid. In fact, it is the oldest which known of Egypt’s 97 Pyramids. It built for King Djoser of the third dynasty. It was by the architect and genius Imhotep. Imhotep designed it and its surrounding complex.

In fact, Imhotep was the first to build stone tombs in honor of the king’s majesty. He has many titles such as Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt and Administrator of the Great Palace. Moreover, Imhotep may also designed the pyramid of Djoser’s successor, Sekhemkhet. Kings such as Userkaf and Djedkare-Izezi built their Pyramids at Sakkara Cairo. In fact, they are from the fifth dynasty. Unas was the last king of fifth dynasty. He decorated his burial chamber with the famous ‘Pyramid Texts’. Moreover, he also dis with written spells. The spells were to help the king ascend to the heavens and descend again. In fact, they reveal the relationship of the king to the gods. Kings such Pepi I, Merenre and Pepi II built their Pyramids to the south of Sakkara Cairo. They were from the sixth dynasty.

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Sakkara Giza is also famous for its private Old Kingdom tombs. The tombs contain indeed beautiful and revealing scenes. The scenes are like men force feeding geese andcattle crossing a canal. Moreover, the scenes also are like men dragging a statue on a sled to the tomb. In fact, the best known tombs are those of Ti, Kagemni and Ptahhotep. In fact, the most famous is that of Meruruka. During the New Kingdom, Memphis took second place to Thebes as Egypt’s capital. The government officials who ruled Upper Egypt lived in Memphis and buried at Sakkara Giza. Here Geoffrey Martin found the famous tomb that Horemheb built for himself. In fact, it is before he becomes pharaoh. He was still the overseer of Tutankhamen’s army. Martin also found the tomb of Mava and Tutankhamen Treasurer.

The first of the recent discoveries at Sakkara Cairo dates back to the New Kingdom. This site developed by the French Alain Zivie. Zivie started work at a place in Sakkara Cairo called Abwab el-Qotat, ‘The Doors of the Cats’. It called because hundreds of cat mummies found here. Ancient Egyptians worshiped the cat goddess Bastet. The main place of worship was at Tel Basta. In fact, it is near Zagazig in the east of the Delta. Sakkara Cairo sanctuary stood above a cliff in which some New Kingdom tombs cut. Some of them reused much later for cat burials connected with the sanctuary. The Abwab El-Qotat site had neglected for many years. It was dangerous because the cliff was crumbling and the Tombs were falling apart.

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The French archaeological team worked here for the last 14 years. The main focus of their work was the tomb of the Vizier Aperel or Aperia. Amenhotep III served as the prime minister of Lower Egypt. It was in the fourteenth century BC. His son was Amenhotep IV. In fact, he known as Akhenaten. Aperia’s tomb discovered in 1987. Zivie got the opportunity to clear a huge burial complex on four levels. The last level still contains a large part of the funerary treasure of Aperia. They were his wife Tauret, their son Huy and prominent general. The big surprise was indeed the discovery of the funerary chamber. In fact, it found hidden behind the stairway.

The remains of the Vizier, his wife and their son found in beautiful coffins. They were with canopic jars of alabaster, objects of daily and religious use and many jewels. Moreover, the gold transferred to the Cairo Museum and is on exhibit there. The beautiful rings and bracelets can compared only with those found at Thebes. Dr. Zivie’s report referring to the funerary chamber as the ‘chapel’. A late masonry was present almost everywhere at the first level of the tomb. It prevented investigation. Moreover, three cult niches revealed when they removed the masonry. Dry stones had blocked the entire chapel. The decoration on the main, central and niche remained in a good state of preservation. Furthermore, on the sides are paintings of the Vizier.

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Each with his complete name, Aper-EI. He receiving offerings of flowers or purification from two sons unknown to us. In fact, their names and titles are present. The first one is Seny. He was a high official. The other one is Hatiay. He was a priest. The representations are important because they illustrate the art of the time of Akhenaton. Its aftermath not at Amarna or at Thebes, but rather at Memphis. Memphis remained the main city of the country. But also in some neighboring tombs. This masonry dates back to the beginning of the Ptolemaic (Greek) Period. The site then re used in cat burials at the sanctuary of Bastet above the cliff. It was necessary to remove the blocking (late masonry). it was to explore the chapel completely.

In fact, the operation provided the Mission with a chance discovery. Moreover, the larger part of the chapel of the tomb hidden by the masonry. The decoration well preserved behind the stones and mortar. The work took several months, but the chapel now completely cleared. In cat, now we have a complete picture of the first level of the tomb. The result is impressive. There were three square pillars. One unknown before. It was on the inner faces of which one can still discern representations of the Vizier and of his son. The fourth pillar is no longer present. A splendid ceiling decorated in brilliant colors. Moreover, it also almost completely preserved. The most important discovery in the chapel was indeed the back wall, side of the burial chamber.

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Near the sarcophagus found the canopic chest of the king. It was with his viscera which wrapped in bandages of fine linen. The expedition found small Pyramids of queens and others who may have been queens. It was during examining the high sand mounds on the south side of Pepi I’s pyramid. Pepi I married two sisters. They were the daughters of the Mayor of Abydos. It the first recorded case of an Egyptian god king marrying a commoner. From the French team’s work we knew the queens for whom these Pyramids built. The first built for Queen Nwb-wnt. In 1995 they found the pyramid of Queen Meryt-it-is. We already knew this name as that of the wife of King Khufu (Cheops), builder of the Great Pyramid. She enjoyed the titles of ‘King’s Wife’ and ‘King’s Daughter’.

Her newly- found pyramid raises Egypt’s total of Pyramids with superstructures to 97. It expected that the expedition will find more 8th Dynasty Pyramids in this area. Sakkara Cairo was the burial place of those kings. They have already located the pyramid of King Iby. The third discovery at Sakkara made while excavating in the vicinity of Queen Iput I pyramid. She was a wife of Teti, first king of sixth dynasty. His reign was about 68 years. He married two queens, Iput and Khuit. The historian Manetho stated that King Teti assassinated by his bodyguard. Others believe that Teti’s eventual assassination motivated by resentment. The resentment at the eclipse of priestly authority.

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Naguib Kanawati of Macquarie University, Sydney, has uncovered evidence to support the murder theory. The name of Teti’s pyramid was ‘The Pyramid Which Is Enduring Of Palaces’. Its original height was 52.5 meter. It first opened in 1881 and found to resemble other 6th Dynasty Pyramids. Inside was a sarcophagus of gray basalt. Near it found Teti’s viscera. It was in a canopic chest like that of Pepi I . Queen Iput’s and Khuit’s Pyramids located about a ninety meters north of Teti’s. In 1897-99 V. Loret excavated it. He found a large limestone sarcophagus. It contains the cedar wood inner coffin of the Queen. Inside the coffin were her remains.

On the bones of her right arm found scattered remains of her necklace and a gold bracelet. When excavated around Queen Iput’s pyramid, it found most of the rooms of its funerary temple. It decorated with beautiful scenes. Also found in the temple was a monument dating from the third dynasty reign of Djoser. This monument resembles a pillar. The shape of its top called a Serelh, which means ‘palace facade’. On it written the name of Djoser. Above it is the falcon god Horus wearing the Double Crown on Upper and Lower Egypt.

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Beneath Horus is a lion or lioness which followed by a jackal. They arranged in 12 registers. It could be a part of an entrance gate for the pyramid complex of Djoser. On its top would have been a lintel with Djoser’s titles. There is major discovery near Queen Iput’s funerary temple. It was the tomb of Teti’s son Teti-ankh-km, which means ‘Teti-ankh the Black’. The false door of the tomb bears his name, the title of ‘King’s Son’. It also does his most important title of ‘Overseer of Upper Egypt’. The tomb contains beautiful scenes of daily and religious life. It includes ladies bringing offerings and the slaughtering of animals. It also includes the deceased standing with his wife, the lotus flower, and many other scenes.

The colors in the scenes are distinctive. The style is characteristic of Sakkara tombs during the Old Kingdom. During New Kingdom, most of Sakkara tombs display the same style and colors. The painting partly defaced. The wall carved with a new and impressive representation. It is of Osiris who flanked by the goddesses Isis and Nephthys. The figures used as cult representations, like statues. The smaller western niche found empty. The Ptolemaic masonry of the eastern niche contained the mummies of cats. They are most notable one in a limestone coffin with a superb cat mummy in linen wrappings. This was the first in situ cat burial which found at Sakkara Cairo. It dedicated to Bastet . It was when the site blocked up and re-used, probably in the early Ptolemaic Period.

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To protect the fragile parts of the cliff, the masonry from other tombs in the vicinity removed. Excavation work then concentrated on the tomb of Mery-Sekhmet. He lived in the 19th Dynasty. This tomb, was unknown before the Mission explore Sakkara site. It only partly preserved, but what left is quite exceptional. The stone masonry of the Ptolemaic Period removed. It was to reach and protect the original decorated walls of the tomb. In fact, the task was difficult. It also proceeded over several years. The preserved walls of the chapel are now almost cleared and cleaned. They decorated with superb relieves. Moreover, they partly inspired by the mastabas (tombs) of the Old Kingdom.

Furthermore, they depict Mery-Sekhmet and his wife Iuy attending to agricultural work. They partly blackened by fire in ancient times. The reliefs and their color excellently cleaned and reinforced. The main surprise awaited the Mission at the back of the tomb. It is where the removal of the masonry led to the discovery of a walled niche. The high humidity led to fears that nothing preserved in this remote part of the tomb. In fcat, it was not the case. The niche slowly and methodically cleared in January 1994 and the winter of 1995. It contains a pair of superb statues carved in the rock.

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These are standing figures more than 3 feet high and still colored. They were of Iuy and Mery-Sekhmet. He holds a standard with small figures of Osiris and Re-Harakhte. This is the first time that such New Kingdom statues, carved into the rock, discovered at Sakkara. The faces of the man and woman are quite beautiful. Despite the fragility of the stone and the colors, the statues well preserved. The second discovery at Sakkara made under the supervision of a French Egyptologist. He was Jean Leclant. This French expedition worked around Pepi I pyramid. He was the third king of the Old Kingdom’s 6th Dynasty. In his reign, Egypt reached a peak in art and culture.

One of the king’s courtiers was Weni. He recounts that Pepi I appointed him to investigate a conspiracy on the part of Queen Imtis. Weni didn’t say what she plotted against the king, nor what kind of punishment she suffered. Hieroglyphic inscriptions on the inner walls of Pepi I’s pyramid crumbled to the floor. The French team accomplished one of its most important tasks. They reconstructed the inscriptions by computer. It took them almost five years to complete this impressive achievement. In fact, there is now an museum with a special room. The room dedicated to Jean-Phillippe Lauer’s work. It located in Sakkara. Moreover, it is with many other exhibits on this archaeological site. It named the Imhotep Museum.

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Pharaonic Village Cairo Egypt

Pharaonic Village Cairo

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Pharaonic Village  Cairo is a living museum of Ancient Egyptian life. It located on Nile river in Cairo, Egypt. In fact, it takes you back about three thousand years. Just a few miles from Cairo center is a time machine waiting to take you on a fantastic journey. The journey is to the days of the Pharaohs. The time brought to life by an incredible group of actors and actresses. In fact, it features faithful and exact reproductions of buildings, clothing and lifestyles. Dr. Hassan Ragab is the founder of Pharaonic Village Cairo. His son is Dr. Abdel Salam Ragab. They have worked for over twenty years on it. It was to create the most precise living recreation of the golden days of Pharaonic Egypt. In fact, Pharaonic Village invites you to join him on this fascinating journey to the past.

Moreover, at the Pharaonic Village Cairo, visitors sail on comfortable motorized barges down a network of canals. They view incredibly accurate tableaux of the recreation of ancient Egyptian life. Though the city of Cairo surrounds the island. It penetrates the thick wall of trees planted around the island. Sights include recreations of industries, games, arts, and moments from history and legend. Furthermore, Pharaonic Village Cairo features cafeterias, boat rentals and a children’s playground. Moreover, it also features a restaurant that serves both Egyptian and European dishes. In fact, Pharaonic Village Cairo facilities will indeed make your stay even more enjoyable.

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The exact details that have gone into making the past come to life at Pharaonic Village Cairo. Over a hundred actors and actresses perform all the daily activities and arts of the ancient Egyptians. They include agriculture, pottery, sculpture, weaving and much more. Everyone existed in an ancient Egyptian city is here in the modern recreation. It is from pharaohs to fishermen, from potters to priests. Because of this attention to detail, Pharaonic Village is more than education and entertainment. In fact, it is a vital resource in the preservation of our knowledge of the ancient world.

In fact, Pharaonic Village Cairo indeed is a must-see for any visitor to Egypt. It is whether scholar of Egyptian history and culture, or casual tourist. In fact, it indeed is an excellent complement to a trip before going to Aswan and Luxor. Go to the Village on a journey through time to the rich and exciting age of the pharaohs. Pharaonic Village Cairo is near to Giza Zoo. It is one of the most beautiful zoos in the world. It is the most inhabited by the various animal and plant species. Giza Zoo area is about 80 acres. It located near the west bank of the Nile. Its northern tip overlooks Cairo University. Giza Zoo not far from Cairo Downtown and it linked to it by many buses. Giza Zoo is under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture in Egypt.

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The village is also near to Nile Pharaoh cruise. The cruise is a great way to spend a Cairo evening or enjoy a sumptuous lunch on the Nile. Nile Pharaoh cruise begins in Giza and traverses the Nile to the downtown area. An then back, taking approximately two hours. On board you will entertained by a belly dancer and an Egyptian singer, as well as a folkloric show. Western Music also played.

Pharaonic Village is also near to Cairo Tower. The Tower is 187 meter high and in the form of a latticework tube. It fans out at the top. It imitates a lotus plant. Cairo Tower ranks the fourth among the world highest towers.It is nice to be up high in Cairo. Cairo Tower gives one a prospective view of this great city. It is with it’s modern and ancient districts.

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Menkaure Pyramid Egypt

Menkaure Pyramid Cairo Egypt

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Menkaure Pyramid located at Giza Plateau. It is near to Khafre Pyramid and Cheops Pyramid. In fact, Menkaure pyramid had an original height of 65.5 meters (215 feet). It is the smallest of the three major pyramids at the Giza Necropolis. Moreover, Menkaure pyramid now stands at 61 m (204 ft) tall with a base of 108.5 m. Furthermore, Menkaure Pyramid constructed of limestone and granite. The first sixteen courses of the exterior made of red granite. The upper part cased in the normal manner with Tura limestone. In fact, part of the granite left in the rough. Menkaure pyramid helped archaeologists understand the methods used to build pyramids and temples.

In fact, south of Menkaure pyramid are three satellite pyramids. Moreover, they are each accompanied with a temple and have a substructure. Furthermore, the southernmost is the largest and a true pyramid. It’s casing is partly of granite like Menkaure pyramid. It believed to have completed due to the limestone pyramidion found close by. In fact, neither of the other two progressed beyond the construction of the inner core. In the mortuary temple the foundations and the inner core made of limestone. The floors begun with granite and granite facings added to some of the walls. The foundations of the valley temple made of stone. Moreover, both temples finished with crude bricks. Some of the blocks of local stone in the walls of the mortuary temple weighed as much as 220 tons.

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In fact, the heaviest granite ashlars imported from Aswan and weighed more than 30 tons. It was unusual for a son or successor to complete a temple when a Pharaoh died. It is not unreasonable to assume that Shepseskaf finished the temples with crude brick. There was an inscription in the mortuary temple. It said “made it (the temple) as his monument for his father, the king of upper and lower Egypt”. During excavations of the temples Reisner found a large number of statues. They were of Menkaure alone and as a member of a group. These all carved in the naturalistic style of the old kingdom with a high degree of detail evident. Menkaure pyramid date of construction is unknown. In fact, it is because Menkaure’s reign has not defined. But it probably completed in the 26th century BC.

Richard William Howard Vyse first visited Egypt in 1835. He discovered in the upper antechamber the remains of a wooden anthropoid coffin. It inscribed with Menkaure’s name and containing human bones. This is now a substitute coffin from the Saite period. The bones are less than 2,000 years old. Deeper into Menkaure pyramid, Vyse came upon a beautiful basalt sarcophagus. It is rich in detail with a bold projecting corniche. This sarcophagus now lies at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. It sunk on October 13, 1838. It was on the ship Beatrice. The ship was in its way between Malta and Cartagena. It was on the way to Great Britain. It was one of only a handful of Old Kingdom sarcophagi to survive into the modern period. In fact, the anthropoid coffin successfully transported on a separate ship. It maybe seen today at the British Museum.

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Al-Malek al-Aziz Othman attempted to demolish the pyramids. It was in the end of the twelfth century. He started with Menkaure Pyramid. The workmen found it almost as expensive to destroy Menkaure Pyramid as to build. They stayed at their job for eight months. They were not able to remove more than one or two stones each day. It was at a cost of tiring themselves out. Some used wedges and levers to move the stones, while others used ropes to pull them down. When a stone fell, it would bury itself in the sand, requiring extraordinary efforts to free it. Wedges used to split the stones into several pieces. A cart used to carry it to the foot of the escarpment, where it left. Far from accomplishing what they intended to do. They spoiled Menkaure Pyramid by leaving a large vertical gash in its north.

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Chephren Pyramid Khafre Pyramid Egypt

Chephren Pyramid Cairo Egypt

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Chephren Pyramid also called Khafre Pyramid. In fact, it is the second-tallest and second-largest of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids. Khafre Pyramid is the tomb of the Fourth-Dynasty pharaoh Khafre (Chefren). He ruled from 2558 to 2532 BC. In fact, Chephren Pyramid or Khafre Pyramid often called the “Second Pyramid”. Chephren Pyramid or Khafre Pyramid built next to the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops). In fact, Chephren is the son and successor of Khufu and Hensuten. Khufu’s other son and also Ra’djedef, started constructing his own pyramid at Abu Rawash. It is north of Giza. Chephren pyramid or Khafre Pyramid designed more modestly than Khufu’s. Moreover, Chephren pyramid originally was 10 feet (3 m) shorter and 48 feet (14.6 m) more narrow at the base.

In fact, the estimated weight of all the stones in Chephren Pyramid or Khafre pyramid is 4,880,000 tons. Because it built higher on the plateau, Chephren Pyramid or Khafre Pyramid looks taller from most angles than Khufu’s pyramid. Furthermore, the slope of the angles is higher, 53 degrees in comparison to Khufu’s 51 degrees. In fact, there is no evidence that anyone ever buried in the main chamber. Moreover, no inscriptions found in Chephren pyramid or Khafre Pyramid. There is a sarcophagus in the main chamber. There are also two entrances that lead into Chephren pyramid. They placed one above the other. The upper entrance features 50 feet (15 m) above the ground. This is the one that used for entrance now. Furthermore, a narrow passage leads into a large limestone chamber. This passageway descends at a 25 degree angle to the chamber.

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In fact, the walls lined with red granite. This inner chamber is quite large, 14.2 m x 5 m x 6.9 m. Moreover, the roof of the chamber set at the same angles as Chephren pyramid face. It designed to take the weight of Chephren pyramid, as is the relieving chambers in Khufu’s pyramid. The roof designed this way has worked, Chephren pyramid has not collapsed. The lower corridor is directly under the upper corridor. It once contained a portcullis, which could let down to prevent entry. This corridor declines on the same angle as the upper and eventually joins into the upper. Once joined, the passageway leads into the inner chamber. Located in the lower passage is a burial chamber. In fact, It unfinished and unused. It is in the bedrock under the pyramid.

The passageway also leads through this chamber and joins the upper corridor. The top of Chephren Pyramid or Khafre Pyramid still has some of the limestone casing. In fact, it once covered the entire Chephren pyramid. There is maybe a change in the method of positioning the blocks that has kept these pieces still intact. It indeed gives the appearance of a white cap on top of Chephren Pyramid. Khufu’s pyramid, Chephren pyramid looted before it entered in 1818 by Belzoni. Furthermore, the Mortuary Temple of Chephren is to the east of Chephren pyramid. It indeed better preserved than Khufu’s temple. Chephren’s temple is more elaborate. It is although the statues and other contents have stolen than his father’s.

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Some of the limestone walls had granite casing, which is still present in some places. Parts of a small sanctuary, outhouses, a courtyard and a large hall with pillars still remain. Moreover, a causeway connects the Mortuary Temple to the Valley Temple. It indeed better preserved than any other causeway. Furthermore, it hidden in the sands until Mariette found it in 1852. The causeway is also 500 m long. In fact, it lined with red granite which protects the limestone. Moreover, there are two entrances to the temple that face east. They lead into a T-shaped hall which has huge pillars. Twenty-three statues of Chephren also found in this hall. In fact, the only one which remains intact is in the Egyptian Museum. This statue is indeed the most famous Egyptian statue.

It shows Chephren sitting in his throne with a hawk perched on the back of the throne. Chambers can found on the south side of the hall. The passage which joined the causeway now closed off to visitors. Moreover, two entrances lead to the burial chamber. One that opens 11.54 m (38 ft) up the face of Chephren pyramid. The other one opens at the base of Chephren Pyramid. These passageways do not align with the center line of Khafre pyramid. Rather, they offset to the east by 12 m (39 ft). The lower descending passageway carved completely out of the bedrock. It also descends, runs horizontal and then ascending. In fact, this is to join the horizontal passage leading to the burial chamber.

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In fact, there is an explanation why there are two entrances. It is that Chephren pyramid intended to be much larger with the northern base. The northern base shifted 30 m further to the north. It which would make Khafre pyramid much larger than his father’s. This would place the entrance to the lower descending passage. It is within the masonry of Chephren pyramid. The bedrock cut away farther from Chephren pyramid on the north side than on the west side. In fact, there is no enough room on the plateau for the enclosure wall and Chephren pyramid terrace. Furthermore, there is a subsidiary chamber. It equals in length to the c.412  long King’s Chamber of the Khufu pyramid.

The chamber opens to the west of the lower passage, the purpose of which is uncertain. It maybe used to store offerings, store burial equipment or it was a Serdab chamber. The upper descending passage is clad in granite and descends. It is to join with the horizontal passage to the burial chamber. The burial chamber carved out of a pit in the bedrock. However, the roof constructed of gabled limestone beams. The chamber is rectangular, 14.15 m by 5 m (46.4 ft x 16 ft). In fact, it also oriented east-west. Khafre’s sarcophagus carved out of a solid block of granite. It sunk partially in the floor. Belzoni found bones of an animal, possibly a bull in it. Another pit in the floor likely contained the canopic chest. Its lid would have been one of the pavement slabs.

The Valley Temple:

The valley temple of Khafre’s Giza complex is one of the best preserved Old Kingdom temples in Egypt. As a masterful work of ancient Egyptian monumental architecture, it cleared of sand. In 1869 this temple became the backdrop for the ceremonial opening of the Suez Canal. The temple fronted on the east by a large terrace. It paved with limestone slabs, through which two causeways led from the Nile canal. In the middle of the terrace, fragments of a small, wood and matting structure unearthed. They are the location of a statue depicting Khafre. Others believe that this was a tent which used for purification purposes.

In 1995, Zahi Hawass re-cleared the area in front of the Valley temple. He discovered that the causeways passed over tunnels. They framed with mud-brick walls and paved with limestone. These tunnels have a slightly convex profile resembling that of a boat. They formed a narrow corridor or canal running north-south. In front of the Sphinx Temple, the canal runs into a drain. It leads northeast to a quay buried below the modern tourist plaza. The causeways connected the Nile canal with two separate entrances. The entrances are on the Valley temple facade. They sealed by huge, single-leaf doors. They made of cedar wood and hung on copper hinges. Each of these doorways protected by a recumbent Sphinx.

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The northern of these portals dedicated to the goddess Bastet. The southern portal dedicated to Hath. The temple laid out in almost a square ground plan. It situated just next to the Great Sphinx and its associated temple. Valley temple was a gateway or portal to the whole complex. It is like to the fore part of Khafre’s mortuary temple. Its core wall built of huge blocks that sometimes weighed as much as one hundred and fifty tons. This inner core then covered by pink granite slabs. A material used throughout the complex quarried near Aswan far to the south. This wall inclined and rounded at the top. It made the whole structure appear somewhat like a Mastaba tomb.

Between the two entrances to the valley temple was a vestibule. It is with walls of simple pink granite that polished to a luster. Its floors paved with white alabaster. A door then led to a T-shaped hall that made up a majority of the temple. This area too sheathed with polished pink granite and paved with white alabaster. It also adorned with sixteen single block pink granite pillars. They supported architrave blocks of the same material. They bound together with copper bands in the form of a swallow’s tail. These in turn supported the roof.

On the south side of the roof was a small courtyard. It situated directly over six storage chambers. It built of pink granite and arranged in two stories of three units each. These embedded in the core masonry of the T shaped hall. At the other end of the cross in the T shaped hall (north), an opening gave way to a passage. It also paved with alabaster. It leads to the northwest corner of the temple and there joined the causeway.

The Cult Pyramid:

A small cult pyramid sits on the axis of the south side of Chephren Pyramid. It almost completely destroyed. Cult, or Satellite pyramids derived from the south tomb of Djoser’s complex at Saqqara. They were for the burial of statues which dedicated to the Ka, or spiritual double of the king. The cult pyramid surrounded by its own enclosure wall. It has a simple substructure. Furthermore, it consists of a descending corridor that gives way to an underground chamber. It features a T-shaped ground plan.

Furthermore, this chamber contained bits of wood and carnelian beads. It also contains fragments of animal bones and vessel lids. Maragioglio and Rinaldi concluded that it served as a tomb for one of Khafre’s consorts. Stadelmann opposed this view, believing that it was a cult pyramid. His opinion supported by the cult pyramid attached to Khufu’s complex. It is on its southeast corner.

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Great Pyramid of Giza Cheops Pyramid Khufu Pyramid

The Great Pyramid of Giza

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The Great Pyramid of Giza also called Khufu Pyramid. It also known as Cheops Pyramid. In fact, the Great Pyramid of Giza is the greatest pyramid among all pyramids in Egypt. How the Great Pyramid of Giza built, is a question that may never answered. Herodotus said that it took 30 years and 100,000 slaves to build Great Pyramid of Giza. Another theory says it built by peasants. They were unable to work the land while the Nile flooded between July and November. They maybe paid with food for their labor. The flooded waters also aided in the moving of the casing stones. In fact, these stones brought from Aswan and Tura. The water brought the stones right to Great Pyramid of Giza.

In fact, the Great Pyramid of Giza built between 2589 – 2566 BC. Moreover, it took over 2,300,000 blocks of stone with an average weight of 2.5 tons each. The total weight was 6,000,000 tons and a height of 482 feet (140 m). In fact, the Great Pyramid of Giza indeed is the largest and the oldest of the Pyramids of Giza. Not much known about Cheops (Khufu) who built the Great Pyramid of Giza. The tomb robbed long before archaeologists came upon it. Any information about him taken with the objects inside the tomb. Though he was ruler of a structured society and he must have been wealthy. Khufu buried alone in this massive tomb. Moreover, Cheops wives maybe buried nearby in smaller Mastabas.

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The encasing marble which covered the outside of the Great Pyramid of Giza eroded or removed over time. With this casing off, the Great pyramid of Giza lost 33 feet (11 m) of all its dimensions. Moreover, the top platform of the Great Pyramid of Giza is 10 m square. The base of the Great Pyramid of Giza is 754 feet and covers 13 acres. Furthermore, the original entrance to the Great Pyramid of Giza was about 15 m. In fact, it is higher than the entrance which used today. Al Mamum, who opened up the new passage, could not find the original opening. The new passageway leads straight across. Moreover, it joins in with the original passage, the descending passage. The descending passage led only to a subterranean chamber. This descending passage which leads down, set at a 26 degree angle.

Moreover, it descends down 345 feet (105 m) into the earth under the Great Pyramid of Giza. The passageway is only 3’6″ (1.1 m) wide and 3’11” (1.2 m) high. The chamber closed to the public. Moreover, the chamber itself is room that measures about 46′ x 27’1″ x 11’6″ (14 x 8.3 x 3.5 m). There is a passage that leads 100 feet to the western side. The purpose of the pit is uncertain. It is possible that it could be the burial chamber, but after a change of plan, it abandoned. The descending passage beyond where the new entrance meets it, closed off by a steel door. Furthermore, the ascending passage rises at the same angle as the descending, 26 degrees. The ascending passage leads up into the Great Pyramid of Giza. Moreover, the ascending passage is the same dimensions as the descending.

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It can be quite a difficult trek for some people. The passage leads on for 129 feet (39 m). At the point where the ascending passage levels off, you can go two different ways. If you continue on horizontally, this passageway leads into the Queen’s Chamber. In fact, the Queen’s Chamber never used. The floor in this room never polished, it’s still rough. Egyptology guides believe that the chamber brought to this point. And then, the builders changed their minds and moved to the King’s Chamber. There is a possible explanation for the abandonment. It is that the sarcophagus built for Cheops was much large for the narrow passageways which built. Moreover, there are ventilating shafts that are another mystery. These shafts sealed at the extremities on both shafts. The shafts must made as Cheops pyramid went up.

It is since the builders most likely not continued to make the shafts. In fact, it was after the decision to abandon the chamber. It also thought that these are not actually ventilation shafts. Moreover, they are more of a religious significance. This could related to the Ancient Egyptian’s beliefs. They believed that the stars inhabited by gods and souls of the dead. The second is more spectacular. It is the way at the leveling off point of the ascending passage. In fact, it was to continue upwards to the Grand Gallery. The gallery is 157 feet (48 m) long and 28 feet (8.5 m) high. It is at the same 26 degree angle as the passages. The roof of the gallery corbel-ed. It said that not a piece of paper or a needle can inserted between the stones making up the roof.

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The gallery is only 62 inches (1.6 m) wide at the bottom. Moreover, it is only 41 inches (1 m) wide at the top of the incline. The Grand Gallery leads into the King’s Chamber. The walls of the chamber made of pink Aswan granite. Inside this chamber is the large sarcophagus which made of Aswan red granite, with no lid. The sarcophagus must placed inside the chamber as the Great Pyramid of Giza built. It is much too large to move in afterwards, as was the usual custom of that time. The King’s Chamber is 34’4″ x 17’2″ x 19’1″ high (5.2 m x 10.8 m x 5.8 m high). This chamber also has the possible ventilation shafts as the Queen’s Chamber. They are at the same angle as the shafts in the Queen’s Chamber. The thought about the religious significance applies to these shafts as well.

The main feature of the sky at night, was the Milky Way. The stars thought to have been the Nile in the sky. The southern shaft from the King’s Chamber points to where Orion’s Belt in the ancient sky. The southern shaft of the Queen’s Chamber points to Sirius. The northern shaft of the King’s Chamber points to the circumpolar stars. These stars never disappear in the sky. It thought that these shafts were to help the spirit of the dead Pharaoh find the important stars. Above this chamber is a series of five relieving chambers. In fact, they are essential to support the weight of the stones above. They are also to distribute the weight away from the burial chamber. The top chamber has a pointed roof made of limestone blocks. This is the most important of the relieving chambers.

Around Cheops Pyramid (Khufu Pyramid):

In these chambers, found the only inscriptions in the whole Cheops Pyramid. As you come out of Khufu pyramid you can see the remains of the original enclosure wall. It is on the north and east side. It lies about 10 m from the base of Cheops pyramid. Little remains of Cheops’ Mortuary Temple. What left is basalt paving and lies near the east side of the wall. You may also see occasional traces of the causeway. It leads from the valley temple in the village, Nazlat al-Samman, at the foot of the plateau. This causeway collapsed during the last 150 years. Three small pyramids stand to the east of Cheops pyramid. These thought to have been for his sister, Merits. She was also his wife and possibly two other queens. To the west of the Cheops pyramid or Khufu Pyramid is the Royal Cemetery. It contains 15 Mastabas.

It recently opened to the public after closed for over 100 years. Discovered at this site was the mummy of a 4,600 year old female. She had a completely unique plaster encasement. It has never seen or found anywhere else. At the base of the south face of the Cheops Pyramid, sits the Boat Pits and museum. The five boat pits discovered in 1982. One boat located at the site and can seen at the museum. The boat, which encased in the stones, has no nails. It held together with ropes and pegs, but not nails, and is intact. The purpose of these boats may have intended for travel to the after-life. They maybe also are or to go with the Sun-God on his journey.

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