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El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo

El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo Egypt

El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo, tours and Online Booking

El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo stands in the heart of a square named after El Sayeda Zeinab. She is the grand daughter of the Prophet. May Prayers and Peace be upon him. El Sayeda is an Arabic word means The Lady. The lady Zeinab is also the youngest daughter of both the Lady Fatima and her cousin Ali Ibn Abi Taleb. In fact,  the Lady Fatima is the Prophet’s daughter. The Lady Zeinab is the sister of the two Imams Al Hassan and Al Hussein. In fact, El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo set up shortly after her arrival to Egypt. It was on the appearance of the new crescent moon of Shaaban. Moreover, it is the eighth month of the Hegira calendar. It was in the year 680 AD.

In fact, the Lady Zeinab first arrived to the small village of Al Abassah. It is in Al Sharkia govern-orate, east of Delta. Maslama Al Ansary was on the head of the gathering of well-wishers. Moreover, he was the governor of Egypt in that time. She later settled down at Al Fustat city. Al Fustat was the first Islamic capital of Egypt. The Lady Zeinab became the guest of Maslama. After less than a year of her arrival to Egypt she passed away. It was on the evening of 14th of Ragab 62 AH. Ragab is 7th month of the Islamic calendar. According to her will, she buried in the same place where she had lived for about eleven months. Sayyeda Zeinab mausoleum built close to the northern flank of Maslama house. It overlooks the River Nile bay near Sayeda Zeinab square.

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In the course of time Moslama’s house and the adjacent buildings crumbled away. It was except of her mausoleum. It remained intact due to continuous repairs by princes, higher-ranking officials and religious leaders. In fact, the mausoleum orated by domes, niches and inscriptions of Arabic calligraphy. Moreover, the first innovations of El Sayyeda Zeinab mosque Cairo took place during the reign of Ibn Tulun. Sultans Al Mo’ez and Al Hakim allotted land endowments to preserve the mosque. In the sixth century after the Hijra, Sultan Al Adel Ayoub repaired El Sayyeda Zeinab mosque Cairo. He also built a smaller mosque next to it. The Mameluke Prince Abdul Rahman Katkhuda reconstructed the mosque. He furnished it with a toilet for ablutions. In 1201 A.H.

The mausoleum repaired and glided with a layer of yellow copper. Furthermore, El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo area expanded to cover three thousand square meters. In 1315 A.H, El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo re-built next the mausoleum. It was during the reign of Khedive Tawfik. In 1946 A.D King Farouk repaired the mosque and the mausoleum as well. In fact, king Farouk was the last monarch in Mohamed Ali’s dynasty. During the era of President Gamal Abdul Nasser, the mosque expanded to cover an area of 4000 meters. El Sayeda Zeinab mosque again expanded during President Mubarak. It covers 18000 meter with a capacity of 15000 worshipers.

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In fact, the main facade of El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo looks over El Sayeda Zeinab square. Moreover, it has three gateways leading to the mosque. In the western facade there is a special gate for women leading to the Mausoleum. The minaret stands high to the left of this section. The inside ceiling covering the whole area of the mosque erected on columns made of white marble. A light shaft stands over the section located in front of the old niche. As for the mausoleum it lies to the west of El Sayeda Zeinab. It surrounded by a compartment glided with yellow golden copper and topped with a dome.

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Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo

Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo Egypt

Information about Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo, tours, Booking

Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo combines hypo-style features with a cruciform plan. It built in the style of a small congregational facility. After the vestibule there is a courtyard where to the left. A small mashrabiyya enclosure extends out from the wall. Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo dates back to the mid-eighteenth century. On the Qibla side of the rectangular courtyard is an arcade sanctuary. It faced by another arcade hall across the courtyard. The two lateral sides of the courtyard are each occupied by a recess. It opens onto the courtyard through a double arch sustained by one column only. Amir Sayf al-Din Shaykhu Al-Umari rose through the ranks to become Commander-in-Chief. He also became al-Amir al-Kabir, or “Great Prince”. It was under Sultan Hassan reign in 1354.

He was the first to hold this latter title. His personality said to have alternated between cruel and mystical. Amir Shaykhu belonged to the last generation of Mameluke. He known to have interfered in religious affairs. Moreover, he also commended for his piety in washing the dead during the “Black Death”. He murdered in 1357 at more than fifty years of age. In fact, he built a mosque and madrasa, together with a Khanqah. The Khanqah is a religious hostel for Sufi monks. The two buildings, though built at different times, share many similar architectural elements. He established professorships in the four madhabs in Prophetic traditions and in Quranic readings. He endowed them with considerable wealth. It was although the famine of 1403-1404 reduced the school’s holdings.

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Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo housed twenty Sufi. Some of their cells remain preserved behind the northern walls of the mosque. When the Khanqah finished, the Sufi moved to the new complex. They moved with their headmasters. with their first headmaster moved to the new complex. Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo and madrasa date back to 1349. According to al-Maqrizi, it was one of the mosques outstanding and beautiful in Egypt. Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo located on the northern side of Saliba Street in Cairo. Saliba street runs from below The Citadel of Saladdin to Ibn Tulun mosque and El Sayyeda Zeinab mosque. Amir Shaykhu mosque minaret stands above the portal’s vestibule. It employs prismatic triangles for the transition. They are from the square base to the octagonal shaft. The entrance to Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo leads first into a vestibule.

It is where three of the walls have embedded pieces of polished black glass. The original purpose of this glass is decoration. Other say that it was to protect the establishment against jinni or evil spirits. They also say it used as curing panels. It is which anybody with an ailment seeking relief could touch or lean against. Just after you enter the vestibule, to the right, you will find a locked door. In fact, this door leads to a tomb. That perhaps intended for the founder. After the Khanqah built, he chose to interred there instead. Like many of the mosques in Cairo, the building not oriented towards Mecca. Inside the Qibla wall (the wall oriented to Mecca) of the sanctuary bent in a diagonal away from the street. Here, an interesting architectural element is also the stone Minbar.

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This is one of the few ancient stone Minbars that still exists in Cairo. Along Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo sides are geometric decorations that have eroded away. There is also a carved stone which called “dikka”. In fact, it dates back to 1555-56. Dikka is a device to hold the Quran. It indeed is beautiful. Moreover, it consists of a rectangular platform mounted on eight columns. Today it continues to use for Quran readings and lecturing during festive occasions. The Mihrab (pulpit) of Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo has traditional alternating courses. They are of red, white and blue stone. Its marble paneling belongs to the type favored in the mid-fourteenth century. In the lowest register there glazed tile. It seems to have imported from Tunisia or Spain and embedded at a later date. Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo is the most beautiful mosque in Mameluke dynasties era.

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Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo Egypt

Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo

Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo information, tours, prices, booking

Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo includes mosque, Madrasa, Mausoleum and Muristan. Madrasa means school and Muristan means hospital. Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo located in Al Muiz Le Din Alla Street. It is in the area of Bein El Qasrein in Cairo. Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo features decoration in the facade and an interior plan. In fact, they highlight the influence of the Syrian style. The inscription on Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo highlights that it was Sultan El-Malek El-Mansour. He was one of the Tatar or Mongol who enslaved by El-Saleh Ayyub to be his retainers or Mamluks. In fact, they known as the Bahri Mamluks. It is since they lived on the Rodah Island on the Nile in the river citadel of El-Saleh. In fact, Qalawun served as the Sultan of Egypt in 1279. Moreover, he died in 1290 during his battle against the Crusaders in Acre.

In fact, the most attractive things in Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo are indeed the portal, facade and Minaret. Moreover, the portal decorated with interlocking poly-chrome. The facade preceded by many stair-steps with Thuluth inscriptions on it. Furthermore, it also divided into several bays with arches and double-tiered windows. The Minaret of Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo has a notable design. The lower part has a square shape. The top story ornamented with stucco carvings. Moreover, the middle part designed on the Syrian style. Next to the lower part of the Minaret one can see a Malqaf or wind scoop. In fact, it helps in allowing the fresh air to get into the building.

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Sultan Qalawun complex hospital indeed was one of the most prominent structure at that time. It equipped and supplied with a great number of skillful doctors. They treated all the known diseases including dysentery and fevers. The school at Sultan Qalawun complex supplied also with various means of entertainment. This is to please the patients such as music. One can see the hospital of Qalawun in front of Khesrew Sabil. It opens with a gateway that leads to a beautiful walk with trees on its either sides. The site of the old hospital occupied now by a clinic of eye diseases. The original hospital was consisting of four arched aisles and many rooms. The rooms were surrounding a central aisle. Some parts of this building ruined now. But it is worth to visit for its carved forms around the windows and the remaining three arched aisles.

In fact, the mosque at Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo stands on one of the sides of the main street. Its facade appears between the hospital and the mausoleum. The portal of the Madrasa distinguished by its bronze polygon. And also Mamluk buildings’ doors. The ceiling beamed and offered. The interior plan of the Madrasa consists of a central courtyard with two aisles at the end of it. The arched eastern aisle of the Madrasa evokes the style of the basilican churches in Syria. This is obvious in its classical pillars. And the decoration of the double – tiered arches. There are also beautiful stucco decorations in the Madrasa. At the end of this eastern aisle stands the Mihrab that is rich glass mosaic ornaments.

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The Mausoleum at Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo found in the right side of the main entrance of the complex. The cenotaph is remarkable . This because of its unusual height and the variety of decorations. And also because of the design that distinguish the Mamluk style in the following period. The tomb features beautiful stucco carvings. They ornament the arches and the handsome wooden Mashrabiya door. From inside, the tomb has an octagon in a square shape. It supported with piers and Granite columns. The columns that were from the palace of El-Saleh Ayyub in El Roda. The ceiling offered and beamed, while the walls beautified with marble patterns. The panels inlaid with poly-chrome stone in geometric patterns. The arches of the shrine ornamented with stucco carvings.

The Mihrab of the mausoleum is facing the Qibla. It inlaid in poly-chrome marble, blind arcade and mosaic niches. The cenotaph ornamented with a beautiful Mashrabiya screen. It involves the body of Sultan Qalawun and his successor Al Nasir Mohammad. The interior design of the mausoleum is eye-catching. It is because the thickness of the Qibla wall is different from the other walls. The aim of that is to make the interior part directed to the Mecca. It is while the outer face of it goes in parallel to the street. In 1869, this mausoleum restored. The outer part of it painted in bright and harmonious colors. It fade away now and this makes it look more beautiful.

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Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo Egypt

Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo

Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo information, tours, prices, booking

Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo is a massive Mamluk era mosque. In fact, it located near the Citadel in Cairo. Its construction began in 1356. The work in Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo finished three years later. In fact, Sultan Hassan mosque was remarkable for its fantastic size and innovative architectural components. Sultan Hassan mosque designed to include schools for all four of the Sunni schools. They are Shafi’i, Malki, Hanafi and Hanbali. Sultan Hassan’s low profile seems inconsistent with the massive undertaking that was his mosque. The mosque’s grandeur makes sense given Sultan Hassan’s dramatic life. In fact, Sultan Hassan ascended the throne at the age of 13 in 1347. When he reached maturity in 1350, he arrested the Amir Manjaq.

Amir Manjaq controlled all the state’s affairs. Before that arrest, the Amir restricted to an allowance of just one hundred dirham per day. This pocket change collected by servants for the Sultan. At that time, the Amir Shaykhoun as estimated to have an income of 200,000 dirham per day. This deprivation may viewed as a prompt for his later extravagance. Upon taking over the reins, Sultan Hassan placed people of his own favor into positions of power. This happened at the expense of dignitaries currently in position. It upset many of them. Discontented Amirs arrested the Sultan in 1351, held him in jail for three years. They promoted his brother Salih to the throne. Hassan spent his time in jail studying and his obituaries commented on his learning as a result.

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He returned to power and again reshuffled the ruling establishment attempting to solidify power. Sultan Hassan assassinated by his commander in chief of the army, Yalbugha Al Umari. In fact, the commander was Mamluk and was not loyal. The commander rebelled against Sultan. That was because of Sultan’s extravagance in spending fortunes on women. A contemporary Syrian historian, Ibn Kathir, backed this reputation. Ibn Kathir blamed the sultan for his greed and squandering of public funds. The lavish expenses noted coincide with the Sultan’s extensive mosque. After his assassination, Sultan Hassan’s body hidden. It never found. Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo never served its purpose.

In fact, little information is available about the construction of Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo. The source available is Al Maqrizi writing six decades later. He had access to access to administrative documents that are unavailable to historians today. Maqrizi mentions that the construction of the mosque cost 30,000 dirham every day. It made it the most expensive mosque in medieval Cairo. Financing for Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo paid by the austerity of Manjaq. It paid also by extortion from subjects and by Shaykhoun’s wealth. Even the Sultan may have considered the mosque of too great an expense. An inscription on Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo notes the name of Amir Mohammed ibn Biylik. He was a supervisor of the construction of Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo.

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His name placed near Sultan Hassan’s in the inscription. The supervisor’s name alongside the patron’s demonstrated how massive an undertaking the mosque was. The emir’s high standing otherwise was another sign of this prestige. Other labor for Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo restricted by the population loss. It was because of the Black Death. But as this was such a large undertaking, it attracted craftsmen from all over the Mamluk Empire. The construction of the minarets is of particular interest. Plans called for four minarets, but only three ever constructed. One of the minarets collapsed and three hundred people killed. Al Maqrizi noted that the minaret’s fall ignited conversation across Cairo and Fustat about the impending downfall of the state.

Al Maqrizi noted also that a poet wrote lines in response. They said that the fall of the minaret meant that God was present in it. The conversations in the public came to fruition. Sultan Hassan’s assassination followed the minaret’s fall by thirty-three days. Construction of Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo continued after the Sultan’s death. But it still never completed. Sultan Hassan mosque built close to the Citadel. It is on the site of the Palace of Yalbugha al Yahawws. This meant as a pleasing site for the Sultan to look down on from his palace in the Citadel. During the medieval era, an open space connected the mosque and the Citadel. This proximity and the mosque’s sturdiness gave the mosque a unique strategic significance. Ibn Ilyas reported that it used by Mamluk rebels as a fort to attack the Citadel from.

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Mamluk rebels began to bombard the Citadel from there. For this reason, the Sultan Janbulat tried to demolish Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo. After three days of attempted demolition, he had little success and gave up. In fact, Sultan Barquq demolished the stairs to the two minarets. It was to make it less useful in attacks against the Citadel. The sheer size of Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo set it apart. Al Maqrizi noted that the height of the large iwan was superlative. It measured 65 cubits, five higher than Iwan of Kusraw at Al Mada’in in Iraq.

Several unique features about the mosque should also noted. The great dome not equaled in Egypt, Syria, Morocco and Yemen. Despite the thickness of the mausoleum walls, the dome made of wood. Sultan Hassan mosque’s dome was of an uncommon shape, that of an egg. The positioning of the mausoleum between two minarets was quite novel. Four minarets planned, but they never completed. This was an exceptional number for a mosque. The design of the twin portal minarets was uncommon as was the gigantic size of the mosque. Sultan Hassan mosque is the only instance of chinoiserie in Mamluk architecture. The setup of Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo was novel as well. The mausoleum placed behind the prayer hall. This might have thought profane, but it was not at the time.

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Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque Cairo

Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque

Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque Cairo information, tours, prices, booking

Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque situated in Qasaba district. It is northward Darb El Asfar in Cairo. The mosque established by Prince Sulayman. He occupied many prominent posts in the days of Mohammed Ali. Moreover, these posts include the Armor or the supervisor of the arsenal. He credited to building other buildings in Cairo at that time. In fact, Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque distinguished by the variety of decorations. Moreover, it combines between the Cairene style of decoration and other styles from Istanbul. This appears in the facade’s decoration and the windows over it.

Besides to the plant forms and the wooden eaves that appear in the mosque and the Sabil alike. Moreover, the interior plan of Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque consists of a central courtyard. It also divided into three main aisles and forecourt. Both of them directed to Mecca. Furthermore, next to the entrance, there is a balustrade for reciting Holy Quran. Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque has shallow keel-shaped arcades. They support the interior plan. The large marble inlaid Mihrab. In the upper floor of the mosque one can find the Malqaf. Malqaf is window scope. It designed for allowing the fresh air to enter the mosque.

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Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque dates back to 1839. It renowned for its “pencil-like” minaret. It is a tall and thin structure and which built in the Ottoman style. Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque appears so elegant. This is because of the mixture of Ottoman, Cairene and other unexpected architectural styles. You might even spot some Baroque features on the mosque’s pillars. The refined window grills featuring arabesque patterns. They are also something you should pay attention to. The mosque also includes a beautiful round Sabil. The fountain not located under the Kuttab, but next to it.

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Imam Al Busiri mosque Alexandria and tomb and Burda

Imam Al Busiri Mosque Alexandria Egypt

Imam Al Busiri mosque Alexandria information, tomb, Burda

Imam Al Busiri mosque Alexandria located in Alexandria city, Egypt. Different biographers present slightly different versions of Imam Al Busiri’s life. Certain facts agreed upon by all North African to the Sanhaji tribe of Morocco. Historian al Maqrizi claimed that Al Busiri’s family was from Hammad Citadel in Morocco. Furthermore, it was a part of the Banu Habnun tribe. Little known about Imam Al Busiri childhood. It is although scholars surmise that he received the usual education for children of his time. He would have attended a Qur’an school and memorized the entire Qur’an.

Kilani asserts that Imam Al Busiri’s family was poor as he forced to search for work from a young age. Sometime during his youth, he made his way to Cairo, where he pursued his studies. There, he exposed to the important Islamic sciences. They are Arabic language and linguistics. They are also literature, history and the biography of the Prophet Muammad. Even as a young man, Imam Al Busiri began to compose poetry which was not of a religious nature. In 1240 at the age of 30, he composed a poem to petition the King Najm Al Din Al Ayyubi. It was when he failed to allot a generous endowment to Imam Al Busiri mosque Alexandria.

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An accomplished poet, he would often recite his poetry and give lessons at mosques in Cairo. Many young poets studied under him. They are such as Athir al-Din Muammad Ibn Yusuf Abu Hayyan al-Andalusi 1325 AC. And Abu al-Fath Ibn Sayyid al-Nas al-Yamari 1334 AC and Izz al-Din b. Jamaah 1335 AC. His best known for the deeply religious are Burdah and the Hamziyyah poems. Imam Al Busiri’s complete diwan is still extant. It includes poetry that reveals the transition from a rough and terse youth. It also include a mature man with a deeply spiritual disposition. Based on his poetry, one can map out his spiritual development. He records his experiences in life, interactions with people, complaints, and insights.

Imam Al Busiri’s short and slender stature led the people ridicule him. It led also to be the source of their jokes. Early on in his career, he wrote a number satire poems. They revealed his feelings about being ridiculed. He also had a hard time accepting criticism from other poets. Moreover, he even wrote a rebuttal of a poet, one Zayn al-Din who had insulted his work. He known to have a harsh tongue. Furthermore, he took pleasure in composing hijaa, or satire, poetry to insult his enemies. The historian al-Shehab Mahmoud wasa contemporary of Imam Al Busiri. He wrote that he was a misanthrope who would attack others with his words. He also added that he had a bad reputation in the courts of princes and viziers.

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Imam Al Busiri lived in various locations in Cairo and in the Delta region. He worked primarily as a scribe and poet for the local rulers. At one time, a ruler offered him the position of a muhtasib, or market inspector, in Cairo, but he rejected it. From this job offer, we can find out that Imam Al Busiri had a decent knowledge of Islamic law. It is because the job requires a thorough knowledge of Islamic jurisprudence and law. He lived for a long time in the Lower Egypt town of Bilbis 1261-1265 AC. Moreover, he worked there as a scribe and manuscript copyist. He seems to skilled in accounting. That was although al-Maqrizi claimed that he made a lot of mistakes and was not competent in this skill.

Imam Al Busiri interested in religious polemics. He read the Hebrew Bible, New Testament, and religious history of Judaism. He also read Christianity primarily. It was defend Islam and the position of the Prophet Muammad. Some of his colleagues at work were Jewish and Christian. In fact, he known to engage in fiery debates with them. He interested in proving to them that the Gospels did not indicate that Jesus was a god. And that it contained signs of the coming of the Prophet Muammad. He was also concerned with correcting what he believed to be mistakes. It was in the Hebrew Bible that told stories of the prophets and of their sins.

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In addition to being a poet, Imam Al Busiri was also a fine calligrapher. He was also a composer of prose, although nothing of his writing or calligraphy is extant. It said at one point, he made a living designing the engravings for tombstones. In an attempt to make money, he also opened a Qur’an school for children in Cairo. But this venture failed and he forced to close it. As for his domestic life, his poems paint a hellish impression of living. It was with his constantly pregnant wife and gaggle of children. He talks of his wife conspiring with his sister-in-law. It was to get him to divorce her by hitting him and pulling out the hairs from his beard. Moreover, he also complains in detail about old age. He also does about his inability to provide his children with enough food and the problem he faced.

In fact, he could not provide his daughter with furnishings for her home for her marriage. Moreover, he spent some time in the central Delta town of al-Mahallah. It was where he was the poet and scribe for the mayor. He received a monthly wage for composing panegyric poems of the ruler. In al-Mahallah, Imam Al Busiri clashed with the local Christian scribes, copyists and poets. He wrote verses complaining of his treatment at their hands. Sometime during his stay in al-Mahallah, it seems he broke his leg. It was on a visit to the public baths and complained bitterly about his leg in many poems.

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His relation with others was so bad that it reached the point where they wished he would die. Once, when he became very sick, a rumor quickly spread that he had died. Upon recovering from his sickness, he wrote a satirical poem. It was to mock his enemies who spread rumors of his death. The phrase was “I am not the one who would die before them”. I will survive them and weep over their graves. It’s true that I had almost lost my life but the generosity of this vizier gave me a new life.”

Imam Al Busiri had enemies among Jews, Christians and among his coreligionists. In fact, he also had enemies among those closest to him, including his wife. He wrote satirical poems attacking anyone who criticized or insulted him. He recorded each event and rebuttal in a poem. According to al-Maqrizi, Imam Al Busiri would befriend important members of the court. It was such as the vizier Zayn al-Din. al-Zubayr. And would support them no matter if they were just or oppressive rulers. He supported the Mamluk rulers. He wrote zealous panegyric poems . The poems praised Turkish Mamluks that also affronted the local Arab population. The only positive characteristic of Imam Al Busiri recorded by al-Maqrizi. It was that he was generous.

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It not known when exactly Imam Al Busiri became a disciple of Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas. It can posited that this happened later on in his life. Itis at least some years before the death of al-Mursi in 1287 AC. Imam Al Busiri seemed to have struggled to follow Sufi principles. He desired to live in isolation from people. In fact, he had a large family and was often unable to feed them due to his poverty. He said “If I were on my own, I like to be a disciple in a Sufi hostel”.

His later poetry consists mainly of panegyric poems praising the Prophet Muhammad. And he bears little similarity to that of his earlier satirical poems. Perhaps after becoming a Sufi disciple, he underwent a spiritual awakening. It seen in the form the Burdah and the accompanying story of its composition. Moreover, it also was from his previous harsh and misanthropic nature. It seems to be conflicting information about Imam Al Busiri ’s life. It seen in the biographies of non-Sufi historians. Furthermore, it also seen from hagiographies written by Sufi scholars. Sufi hagiographies always describe him as an older man with a head of white hair.

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The time line of Imam Al Busiri’s life is not clear. It known that as a grown man, he drawn towards Sufism. He joined the Shadhili order under the guidance of his Shaykh Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi. It was in Alexandria. And which at the time was a center for North African Sufis. At this time, the Shadhili Sufi order was still in its infancy and founded by al-Mursi. Imam Al Busiri was fond of Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas. He studied Sufi thought and practice under him. This background would have a strong influence on his later poetry. He was faithful to his order. He wrote poems full of praise of al-Shadhili and al-Mursi. They were in their spiritual attributes and ranking. Imam Al Busiri was the contemporary of Ibn al-Farid, the great Sufi poet and mystic.

It also said that he was a friend of Ibn Ata Allah Al Sakandari. Al Sakandari is Sufi scholar and jurists. He wrote the famous Hikam, or collection of Sufi aphorisms. It is as well as a spiritual biography of A Shadhili and Al Mursi. In Sufi hagiographies, Imam Al Busiri painted as a saint-like figure. It is the person who had reached the high spiritual station (maqam) of Al Ghawthiyyah Al kubra. They claim that when he walks down the street, the young and old come out to greet him. They also kiss his hand. It said that his bod has emitted a sweet scent. He wore fine clothes, had a head of snow-white hair and humble smile. He was ascetic in his lifestyle. Moreover, he also had a respectable and virtuous character.

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Kilani disregards these attributes of Imam Al Busiri based on his readings of his poetry. Imam Al Busiri was indeed an unpleasant person. It was for much of his life until he discovered Sufism. He mended his ways, and reached a high spiritual station. This station respected and acknowledged by his fellow Sufis. Imam Al Busiri’s praise poetry of the Prophet Muhammad divided into two periods. The first from before Imam Al Busiri’s Hajj and the second after his return from the Hajj. Imam Al Busiri did not perform his pilgrimage until at least after 1255 AC. Before going on Hajj, he composed many praise poems. Some of them referred to his longing to visit the tomb of the Prophet.

Upon his arrival to Madinah and Makkah, he composed poems revealing his joy. The joy is at the tomb of his beloved and other places which Prophet visited. Although buried in Alexandria, it not known if Imam Al Busiri spent his last years in Cairo or Alexandria. His official tomb located in Alexandria, there are some dispute about where he buried. Al-Maqrizi recorded that he died in al-Mansuri Hospital in Cairo. Al- Ayyashi is a North African traveler who visited Cairo in 1663 AC. He mentioned that he visited Imam Al Busiri’s tomb in the area of the jurist Imam al-Shafii’s tomb. It located in the southern cemetery of Cairo. Imam Al Busiri indeed buried at the foot of al-Muqattam hills. It is where historians presumably thought the younger poet Imam Al Busiri buried.

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Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas mosque

Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas Mosque Alexandria Egypt

Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas Mosque Alexandria, tours, Booking

Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas Mosque is the most historic and most beautiful mosque in Alexandria, Egypt. In fact, Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas Mosque built primarily in 1775. It built over the tomb of a Spanish scholar and saint. Moreover, it stands on Mosque Square overlooking the eastern harbor. Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas (whose full name is much longer) born to a wealthy family. It was in the Andalusia region of Spain in 1219. Furthermore, in the wake of increasing Christian control of Spain, he and his family left for Tunisia in 1242. Moreover, he later went on to Alexandria, a popular destination of many Muslim scholars at the time.

In fact, Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas lived in Alexandria for 43 years. He lived as a scholar and teacher until his death in 1286. Moreover, he buried in a small building near the eastern harbor in Alexandria. In 1307, El Sheikh Zein El Din, one of the richest traders of Alexandria, visited the tomb. He funded a mausoleum and dome for the tomb, along with a small mosque. The tomb of Abu Al Abbas indeed became a place of pilgrimage for many Muslims from Egypt and Morocco. They are who passed through Alexandria on their way to and from Mecca.

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In fact, Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas Mosque periodically restored over the centuries. It was by rulers who built themselves tombs next to the saint. Moreover, most of the present structure dates back to 1775. It was when the Algerian Sheikh Abu el Hassan El Maghreby built a much larger mosque on the site. Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas Mosque renovated in 1863. Furthermore, an annual festival established to celebrate the birth of Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas. Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas Mosque was again beautified in 1943. In fact, it was under King Farouq I (1937-1952). The king built the Midan el Masged, or “Mosque Square”.

In fact, the square covers some 43,200 square meters. Moreover, it includes five other mosques centered around Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas Mosque. Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas Mosque renovated in the Arabian style. The style was popular when the saint came to Alexandria in the 13th century. In fact, the total cost of about 140,000 LE. The cream-colored Al Mursi Abu Al Abbas Mosque stands 23 m high. It dressed in artificial stone, with a minaret on the southern side rising to 73 m. Situated near the shore of the eastern harbor, the mosque and its neighbors. In fact, they clearly seen from the sea. The minaret has an Ayoubids design, with four sections of different shapes. The mosque has an entrance on the north and one on the east, both of which overlook the square.

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The main part of the mosque is an octagon. with internal walls. They dressed in artificial stone except for a 5.6 m-high mosaic. The high ceiling decorated with arabesque. It contains a great octagonal skylight known as a Shokhsheikha. Each side of the skylight has three windows of colored glass in arabesque designs. They set into aluminum frames. This skylight surrounded by four domes, placed over the four mausoleums within the complex.

The floors paved in white marble. The doors, minbar and windows made of joined and finely carved teak, citronia and walnut. The minbar (pulpit) capped by a dome and has verses from the Qur’an written at the top in French gold. The mihrab is niche indicating the direction of Mecca. In fact, it stands at the base of the mosque’s minaret. It flanked by the creed “There is no god except Allah and Mohammad is the prophet of Allah”. Furthermore, it written in Arabic script. Also on other side of the mihrab are two columns of Egyptian granite. They are with the name of Muhammad which written in Kufic Arabic calligraphy at each end.

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Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria

Nabi Daniel Mosque Alexandria Egypt

Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria located in Nabi Daniel street in Moharram Bek in Alexandria. In fact, Nabi Daniel is not popular among the Muslims globally. The present Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria built at the end of the 18th century. It restored in 1823 by Muhammad Ali. A smaller shrine preexisted on the site. It maybe was the mosque of Dzoul Karnein – the Sire with the two horns -. In fact, Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria contains the remains of the scholar and venerated teacher Prophet Daniel. It also has his companion Sidi Lokman el Hakim, a religious story teller. The Arab legend of the Prophet Daniel appeared during the 9th century.

He told by two astronomers: Mohammad Ibn Kathir el Farghani and Abou Ma’shar. It mentioned that “a young Jew, Daniel persecuted and chased from Syria. It was by the idolaters whom he tried to convert. Moreover, an old man appeared in a dream urging him to go to war. The war was against the infidels and promising victory over all Asia. In fact, Nabi Daniel acquired many followers in Egypt. It is where he sought refuge and built Alexandria. Obeying what the old man ordered him in his dream, he made war against the infidels. After a successful expedition, he returned to Alexandria and died of old age. Furthermore, his body placed in a golden sarcophagus inlaid with precious stones. But the Jews stole it to mint coins and replaced it with a stone sarcophagus”.

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Vassili Grigorovich Barskij, visited Alexandria in 1727 and 1730. In fact, he was Russian monk. He made a plan of the city. Near the Kom el Dekka mound, he drew a small Mohammedan shrine. It could be the predecessor of the Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria. We cannot refer to his written description of the city. Barskij’s work only translated and only fragments studied. Moreover, the Danish Captain Norden visited the town in 1737, but tried in vain to find the tomb of Alexander. James Bruce looked for the tomb of the Great Macedonian. It was 30 years later in 1768. He asking the Arabs, the Jews, the Greeks and others, but none were able to show him the location”. At the end of the 18th century, Sestrini shown the sarcophagus in the Attarine mosque.

Moreover, Archimandrite Konstantios tried without success to locate Alexander’s Mausoleum in 1803. He was a Russian prelate from Kiev. He noted that he… ” looked in vain for… the tomb of Alexander the Great. It was the tomb of the man whose life’s course was above the faith of common mortals…;”. He stated that “until the 15th century the location known. But now even the tradition of this tomb has lost…”. He added that “beyond any doubt the remains survived under the great masses of the city’s ruins”. Konstantios, in his writing, and Barskij in his plan do not mention either of the Mosques. A new impulse given to the legend of the tomb of Alexander the Great. It was in the middle of the 19th century.

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Looking through the cracks of the planks he saw a body with the head rose lying in a crystal coffin. On the head, there was a golden diadem. Around scattered papyri, scrolls and books. He tried to remain longer in the vault. But he pulled away by one of the monks of the Mosque. In spite of his repeated attempts to return, he forbidden the area of the crypt. Scilitzis made a written report to the Russian Consul. He also did to the Greek Patriarch of Alexandria. Scilitzis read Dion Cassius and had access to the passage under Nabi Daniel mosque. In fcat, he did not tell the truth. In the humid climate of Alexandria, papyri and books survived for over two millennia.

Mahmoud Bey el Falaki was Egyptian astronomer and engineer. He visited the crypts under the Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria some ten years after Scilitzis. He tried to carry our the difficult task of drawing a map. The map was of the ancient town. In fact, it ordered in 1865 by the Khedive Ismail. From this paved room inclined corridors started out in four different directions. Because of their length and their bad state I could not survey them. The rich quality of the stones used in the construction. Other indications confirmed a belief. It is that these subterranean passages must have led to the tomb of Alexander the Great. El Falaki was not an archaeologist. So we can be skeptical about his conclusions. But one would not question his sincerity and he must considered as a reliable witness.

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His description raises some questions. Who decided and why, to force El Falaki to suspend his survey of the subterranean passages? Falaki was working for a project sponsored by the reigning Khedive. Why did he not appeal to his powerful patron? Why did he drop his investigation. There was allegation of a discovery. It made in 1879 by a chief mason and the Sheikh of the Nabi Daniel mosque Alexandria. The story was that while doing masonry work in the basement, they entered the vault. They and reached an inclined subterranean passage. They both walked for some distance and could discern some monuments. Monuments made of granite ending with an angular summit.

In fact, the mason wanted to proceed further but the Sheikh ordered him to return. Moreover, the entrance walled up and the mason asked not to reveal that incident. About 6 meters down, finished with marble and granite, one could find at least two other chambers. They are on the north and on the east side of the Nabi Daniel’s crypt. Sidi Luqman el-Hakeem’s crypt is on the right side of the Nabi Daniel’s crypt. It attached to the marbled wall.

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Al Salih Ayyub complex Cairo

Al Salih Ayyub Complex Egypt

Al Salih Ayyub Complex Cairo, tours, Booking

Al Salih Ayyub complex located on the famous Moezz Street in Cairo. It dates back to the mid-13th century. In fact, Al Salih Ayyub complex named after its builder, Al Salih Najm Al Din Ayyub. He reigned over Egypt from 1240 till 1249. Al Salih Ayyub was last Ayyubid sultan of Egypt. He died defending Egypt against the Crusader attack that led by Louis IX. He was the grandson of the more famous Salah Al Din Ayyub. In fact, he known in the West as Saladdin. Before his death, he built a rather unique school (madrasa) between 1242 and 1244. He then built a mausoleum. They now called Al Salih Ayyub complex. The mausoleum at the complex built in 1250 by Shajarat Al Durr. She was the wife of Al Salih Ayyub.

She outlived him and became famous as she ruled with the first of the Mamluk sultans after his death. Several madrasas built in Al Fustat (Cairo) during this period. Many of them are among houses and palaces. The construct of Al Salih Ayyub complex indeed is unique. It was the first known example of a tomb which attached to a madrasa. The transitional zone of the mausoleum has the earliest example. It is the example of a Cairene three-tiered brick. Another notable feature of the mausoleum at Al Salih Ayyub complex is that its Mihrab. It is the earliest extant example of an Egyptian prayer niche. It is with a marble lining. There are two carved wooden Qaranic friezes around the chamber. A part of the mausoleum protruded into the street. On this side were windows which fronted by iron grilles.

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The Mausoleum at Al Salih Ayyub complex became a site of grand Bahri Mamluk ceremonials. The madrasa at Al Salih Ayyub complex was the first to house all four Sunni legal schools. In fact, each was in a separate Iwan. Other schools of this period dedicated to either the Maliki or Shafi’i rites of Islamic law. This once also included the Hanafi and Hanbali rites as well. In doing so, it followed the example of the Madrasa Mustansiriyya in Baghdad (1233). In 1330, under the Mamluks, the Friday sermon introduced to this madrasa. The madrasa at Al Salih Ayyub complex became more than just a center of worship and scholarship. Moreover, the Madrasa of Al Salih Ayyub complex occupies part of the site. It is where the Great Fatimid Palace once stood.

Moreover, it is within the heart of the Fatimid city, as does part of the famous Khan El Khalili bazaar. It is rather difficult to spot because only the minaret remains visible behind a row of shops. Furthermore, this minaret is the only one to have survived intact that dates from the Ayyubid Period. The minaret rests upon the roof of a passage. They consists of a rectangular shaft. It receding into a second story in the shape of an octagon. It topped by a ribbed, angular roof resting on stalactites. The minaret rests the passage upon. In fact, it today known as Haret Al Salihiya. It separates the two wings of the madrasa. The entrance to the ally is actually the doorway to the madrasa. Some relics of wooden beams state that this passage covered.

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The passage entrance crowned with a beautiful keel-arched niche. Moreover, it is of carved stone with a foundation inscription of Naskhi script in its center. Flutes radiate from this decoration outward evolving into a frame of
stalactites. They are on the the border of the niche. Flanking this large central niche are two somewhat smaller recesses. They have fluted hoods within a rectangular frame with stalactite cresting. The facade that fronted both wings still stands, adorned with niches, reliefs and inscriptions. The decoration of this facade is somewhat like that of the nearby Al Aqmar Mosque. It hidden by shops. Its most visible adornments are panels. They consist of a keel-arched central section and rectangular panels over the rest.

Each of these panels recessed. Moreover, it also includes a windows, a style first appearing at Al Salih Talai mosque. The lintels of these windows carved in stone. Furthermore, the plan of the madrasa reconstructed by Creswell. Creswell found that it was a near duplicate of the earlier ruined madrasa of Al Malek Al Kamel. His plan shows that the two opposing wings on either side of the passage each had their own courtyards. Al Kamel had only one courtyard with two Iwans. In Al Shaih Al Din’s madrasa, the courtyards each had two vaulted Iwans. They facing each other across the courtyards. These four Iwans divided between the two wings. They served as study areas. Each designated to one of the four schools. Teachers actually taught in their own houses.

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The courtyard in the wing with its back to the street was smaller. In fact, the other larger wing oriented to Mecca. The Qibla orientation of the interior of this larger wing followed the street alignment. It accomplished by increasing the thickness of the wall of the Qibla facade. Thus, the windows became deep recesses. The lateral sides of each courtyard occupied by two stories of living units for the students. Today, only the northwest Iwan has survived. A doorway just to the left of the passage entrance. It gives access into the open courtyard at Al Salih Ayyub complex. In fact, the remains of the madrasa are evident in the form one of its Iwans. They still stand on the street side. A small, recent mosque was at one time which built into it.

Al Salih Ayyub complex represents the architectural and institutional transition. It is between the Fatimid monuments and the next Mamluk complexes. The minaret of the madrasa at Al Salih Ayyub complex, also known as Al Salihiyya. It has undergone recent restoration. Clean and sparkling, it shows a patchwork of old and new stone. It revealing the layers of its history.

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Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo Egypt Alabaster mosque Cairo Egypt

Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo Egypt

Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo is the most popular Islamic mosque among tourists. Moreover, it is one of the most ancient mosques in Cairo. The mosque is also one of the most historic mosques because of its grandeur and its location in Saladin Citadel. In fact, Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo also sometimes referred to as the Alabaster Mosque Cairo. This is because of its extensive use of marble on some of the exterior walls and other surfaces. Muhammad Ali Mosque Cairo is the largest such structure built during the first half of the 19th century. It is more impressive at a distance than close up. Its artistic merit is questionable. Furthermore, the mosque is an unparalleled contribution to the skyline of Cairo. It is visible high atop the Citadel grounds.

In fact, Muhammad Ali Mosque Cairo has a great dome and towering minarets. They give Cairo Citadel indeed a romantic and oriental quality. It makes up for any shortcomings in its detail. Muhammad Ali Mosque Cairo is the first feature which catches ones eyes at the fortress. Moreover, Muhammad Ali tore down the remains of Mamluk palaces and their dependencies. Mamluk palaces luckily described only a short time before by Napoleon’s scholars. They were the most impressive buildings in Cairo. It was despite of their condition which dilapidated . In fact, some ten meters of rubble filled in. It was to build the mosque on top of the preexisting structures. Muhammad Ali, who was more eager to build modern factories than religious foundations. In fact, he erected this mosque, where he buried, as a monument to himself.

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Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo is also an imperial mosque which challenged those of Istanbul. Salah al-Din, many centuries earlier, abolished all traces of Fatimid power and status. He refused to live in their palaces. Moreover, he dismantled and parceled them out to his courtiers. Muhammad Ali did the same. He destroyed all traces of the Mamluk palaces from Egypt. It was the reason that here no royal palace left from these periods in Egypt. In fact, Muhammad Ali was viceroy and king of Egypt, as well as the founder of Egypt’s modern era. He achieved a radical break with all traditional characteristics of Cairo architecture. It was from the Mamluk to the late Ottoman period. Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo became a symbol of the city. The mosque of Muhammad Ali is the most visible of Islamic monuments in Cairo.

Muhammad Ali acted of Istanbul. He came closer to that of Istanbul than ever before in the architecture style. It included even its Western, and particularly French, influence. He came close to take the Ottoman Empire as his own. Moreover, he set out in Cairo to abandon the oriental Middle Ages. He built a city that would surpass Istanbul. The planning of Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo assigned to Muhammad Ali’s French architect. He was Pascal Coste. Pascal Coste wanted to build the mosque in the local Mamluk style. Muhammad Ali changed his mind and hired a Greek architect, Yusuf Bushnaq. That was to design Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo on a plan like Sultan Ahmad mosque in Istanbul. In fact, Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo built between 1830 and 1848. The long time it took to complete may be due to its size.

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Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo combined with its prominent location and its profile of domes. They flanked by a pair of slender high minarets, contribute to its prestige. The Egyptians themselves place a great deal of pride in this monument. Moreover, the pencil shaped minarets are over eighty meters high. They stand on bases only three meters wide. In fact, the architecture of Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo is Ottoman. The domes are relative to their width, higher and less squat than those in Istanbul. The complex consists of two parts. Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo proper to the east and the open courtyard (or Sahn) to the west. The plan of Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo is a central dome which carried on four piers. The spherical pendentives, flanked by four half-domes, and four smaller domes on each corner. There is also a dome that separates the Mihrab ceiling from the Qibla wall.

Measuring 41 meters square, the interior is impressive because of its size. It shows the wonderful arrangement of mass and space. It is characteristic of Istanbul Mosques. The main, high dome of Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo soars 52 meters high, with a diameter of 21 meters. The grandeur of this single, large chamber enhanced by the circle of small lamps. It hung in the middle of the praying area, and just above the main dome of the mosque. Other smaller lamps, many of them more modern, hung elsewhere in the mosque. They creating a spectacle of light that is grand in its own right. Within Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo are two minbars, or pulpits. The larger one of wood decorated with gilt ornament, and is original. It said to be one of the largest in Egypt, incorporating significant gold in its decorations.

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The smaller one of alabaster was a gift from King Faruq, dates back to 1939. The Mihrab, or prayer niche, made of Egyptian marble. Muhammad Ali not interred here. In fact, he buried at Housh el Basha. One of his successors, King Abbas I, had his body moved to this location. Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo has three entrances, on the north, west and east walls. The western entrance opens onto the courtyard. The courtyard surrounded by rounded arcades carrying small domes. It is like the Mosques of Sulayman Pasha and Malika Safiyya. These domes supported by large, though simple marble columns. The courtyard is almost square, measuring 54 by 53 meters. Moreover, the courtyard has a northern and southern entrance from the mosque.

In the middle of the courtyard is a marble ablution fountain. It features a carved wooden roof on columns. The fountain decorated in a style like that of the sabil-kuttab. In fact, it faces the madrasa of al-Nasir on Mu’izz street. That structure built by Ismail Pasha in 1828. The sabil and the upper part of the courtyard facade decorated with small oval wall paintings. On the west wall of the courtyard is an iron clock. It presented to Muhammad Ali by the French King Louis Philippe, with a tea salon on the upper level. Its style is a mixture of Neo-Gothic and oriental elements. In fact, it never worked, and never will. The clock, given as a gift in exchange for the obelisk now in the Palace de la Concorde, Paris. The decoration of the building is alien to Cairene traditions, and in fact, to Islamic art.

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There are no stalactites, geometric shapes or arabesques. Only the inscription bands continue any type of Islamic tradition. Six large medallions around the dome enclose names. The names are God, Muhammad and the first four Khalifs. The script written over a royal blue. It often adorns windows in Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo. It actually represent verses from the poem, “Al Burda” which written by Imam al Buseiry. Even the marble chosen for decoration is different from that of earlier Mosques. The decorations which not finished until 1857, are at odds. They are with the simplicity of the architectural structure itself. Many tourists and Egyptians themselves find Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo decorations beautiful. The use of greens, golds and reds appealed to many.

The walls and piers of Muhammad Ali mosque Cairo paneled with alabaster. It is from Beni Suef in Upper Egypt. which is inappropriate for architecture as it deteriorates quickly. A gesture of baroque luxe, unless cleaned, the stone also becomes terribly grimy. In 1931 serious structural deviancy found in the dome. In fact, it had to rebuild. It took two years. Between 1937 and 1939 the decoration renewed. In the middle of the 1980, the whole Citadel complex once again renovated.

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