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El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo

El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo Egypt

El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo, tours and Online Booking

El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo stands in the heart of a square named after El Sayeda Zeinab. She is the grand daughter of the Prophet. May Prayers and Peace be upon him. El Sayeda is an Arabic word means The Lady. The lady Zeinab is also the youngest daughter of both the Lady Fatima and her cousin Ali Ibn Abi Taleb. In fact,  the Lady Fatima is the Prophet’s daughter. The Lady Zeinab is the sister of the two Imams Al Hassan and Al Hussein. In fact, El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo set up shortly after her arrival to Egypt. It was on the appearance of the new crescent moon of Shaaban. Moreover, it is the eighth month of the Hegira calendar. It was in the year 680 AD.

In fact, the Lady Zeinab first arrived to the small village of Al Abassah. It is in Al Sharkia govern-orate, east of Delta. Maslama Al Ansary was on the head of the gathering of well-wishers. Moreover, he was the governor of Egypt in that time. She later settled down at Al Fustat city. Al Fustat was the first Islamic capital of Egypt. The Lady Zeinab became the guest of Maslama. After less than a year of her arrival to Egypt she passed away. It was on the evening of 14th of Ragab 62 AH. Ragab is 7th month of the Islamic calendar. According to her will, she buried in the same place where she had lived for about eleven months. Sayyeda Zeinab mausoleum built close to the northern flank of Maslama house. It overlooks the River Nile bay near Sayeda Zeinab square.

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In the course of time Moslama’s house and the adjacent buildings crumbled away. It was except of her mausoleum. It remained intact due to continuous repairs by princes, higher-ranking officials and religious leaders. In fact, the mausoleum orated by domes, niches and inscriptions of Arabic calligraphy. Moreover, the first innovations of El Sayyeda Zeinab mosque Cairo took place during the reign of Ibn Tulun. Sultans Al Mo’ez and Al Hakim allotted land endowments to preserve the mosque. In the sixth century after the Hijra, Sultan Al Adel Ayoub repaired El Sayyeda Zeinab mosque Cairo. He also built a smaller mosque next to it. The Mameluke Prince Abdul Rahman Katkhuda reconstructed the mosque. He furnished it with a toilet for ablutions. In 1201 A.H.

The mausoleum repaired and glided with a layer of yellow copper. Furthermore, El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo area expanded to cover three thousand square meters. In 1315 A.H, El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo re-built next the mausoleum. It was during the reign of Khedive Tawfik. In 1946 A.D King Farouk repaired the mosque and the mausoleum as well. In fact, king Farouk was the last monarch in Mohamed Ali’s dynasty. During the era of President Gamal Abdul Nasser, the mosque expanded to cover an area of 4000 meters. El Sayeda Zeinab mosque again expanded during President Mubarak. It covers 18000 meter with a capacity of 15000 worshipers.

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In fact, the main facade of El Sayeda Zeinab mosque Cairo looks over El Sayeda Zeinab square. Moreover, it has three gateways leading to the mosque. In the western facade there is a special gate for women leading to the Mausoleum. The minaret stands high to the left of this section. The inside ceiling covering the whole area of the mosque erected on columns made of white marble. A light shaft stands over the section located in front of the old niche. As for the mausoleum it lies to the west of El Sayeda Zeinab. It surrounded by a compartment glided with yellow golden copper and topped with a dome.

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Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo

Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo Egypt

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Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo combines hypo-style features with a cruciform plan. It built in the style of a small congregational facility. After the vestibule there is a courtyard where to the left. A small mashrabiyya enclosure extends out from the wall. Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo dates back to the mid-eighteenth century. On the Qibla side of the rectangular courtyard is an arcade sanctuary. It faced by another arcade hall across the courtyard. The two lateral sides of the courtyard are each occupied by a recess. It opens onto the courtyard through a double arch sustained by one column only. Amir Sayf al-Din Shaykhu Al-Umari rose through the ranks to become Commander-in-Chief. He also became al-Amir al-Kabir, or “Great Prince”. It was under Sultan Hassan reign in 1354.

He was the first to hold this latter title. His personality said to have alternated between cruel and mystical. Amir Shaykhu belonged to the last generation of Mameluke. He known to have interfered in religious affairs. Moreover, he also commended for his piety in washing the dead during the “Black Death”. He murdered in 1357 at more than fifty years of age. In fact, he built a mosque and madrasa, together with a Khanqah. The Khanqah is a religious hostel for Sufi monks. The two buildings, though built at different times, share many similar architectural elements. He established professorships in the four madhabs in Prophetic traditions and in Quranic readings. He endowed them with considerable wealth. It was although the famine of 1403-1404 reduced the school’s holdings.

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Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo housed twenty Sufi. Some of their cells remain preserved behind the northern walls of the mosque. When the Khanqah finished, the Sufi moved to the new complex. They moved with their headmasters. with their first headmaster moved to the new complex. Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo and madrasa date back to 1349. According to al-Maqrizi, it was one of the mosques outstanding and beautiful in Egypt. Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo located on the northern side of Saliba Street in Cairo. Saliba street runs from below The Citadel of Saladdin to Ibn Tulun mosque and El Sayyeda Zeinab mosque. Amir Shaykhu mosque minaret stands above the portal’s vestibule. It employs prismatic triangles for the transition. They are from the square base to the octagonal shaft. The entrance to Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo leads first into a vestibule.

It is where three of the walls have embedded pieces of polished black glass. The original purpose of this glass is decoration. Other say that it was to protect the establishment against jinni or evil spirits. They also say it used as curing panels. It is which anybody with an ailment seeking relief could touch or lean against. Just after you enter the vestibule, to the right, you will find a locked door. In fact, this door leads to a tomb. That perhaps intended for the founder. After the Khanqah built, he chose to interred there instead. Like many of the mosques in Cairo, the building not oriented towards Mecca. Inside the Qibla wall (the wall oriented to Mecca) of the sanctuary bent in a diagonal away from the street. Here, an interesting architectural element is also the stone Minbar.

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This is one of the few ancient stone Minbars that still exists in Cairo. Along Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo sides are geometric decorations that have eroded away. There is also a carved stone which called “dikka”. In fact, it dates back to 1555-56. Dikka is a device to hold the Quran. It indeed is beautiful. Moreover, it consists of a rectangular platform mounted on eight columns. Today it continues to use for Quran readings and lecturing during festive occasions. The Mihrab (pulpit) of Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo has traditional alternating courses. They are of red, white and blue stone. Its marble paneling belongs to the type favored in the mid-fourteenth century. In the lowest register there glazed tile. It seems to have imported from Tunisia or Spain and embedded at a later date. Amir Shaykhu mosque Cairo is the most beautiful mosque in Mameluke dynasties era.

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Al Ashraf Barsbay Complex Cairo

Al Ashraf Barsbay complex Cairo Egypt

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Al Ashraf Barsbay complex built in 1432 on Al Mu’izz street in Cairo. Sultan Al Ashraf Barsbay ruled Egypt from 1422 until 1438. Madrasa means school and Khanqah means hospital. They built at Al Ashraf Barsbay complex in Northern Cemetery of Cairo. In fact, it was a few years after he built his complex. Al Ashraf Barsbay complex located south of Sultan Qalawun complex. The Khanqah contains three mausoleums. Madrasa built to accommodate only about seventeen Sufis. Four years old were students and ten years old were housed. It provided training to Sufi students studying the Hanafi rite. Al Ashraf Barsbay complex takes up both sides of the street south of Khanqah. It covered a large area but many of its subsidiary structures lost now.

Moreover, the mausoleum at Al Ashraf Barsbay complex had four domes. The larger one carved with an undulating star pattern. It was like that one on the domes of Sultan Faraj. Furthermore, the domes cover the mausoleum and attached to Al Ashraf mosque. The interlaced star pattern is the earliest example. It carved on the exterior of stone domes. A shift from the dominant zigzag moldings of other stone domes from this period. It is including this Sultans monument on Al Muizz street within the city. Two other domes cover a smaller mausoleum on the building’s northern side. There is another mausoleum opens on three sides on it’s eastern side. The eastern dome has a stepped and exterior transition while.

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The one on the northern side has a pyramidal structure at each corner. It leads from the rectangular to the octagonal section. The fourth dome now gone. The two smaller mausoleums built for various relatives of the Sultan. The present facade of Al Ashraf Barsbay complex includes an unattractive minaret. The portal not built using the stalactite-vaulted style. That style was popular during the era. But it rather with a trilobed vault, including groins instead of stalactites. This type of pattern used in the late Mamluk and the Ottoman periods.

Within the structure there is a cross-vaulted vestibule. It communicates through a bend with the prayer hall. The hall is also of a different style than other such buildings of this period. This is an oblong hall some twenty by fifteen meters. The roof supported by two pairs of columns. It is with classical capitals carrying three arches. Each running parallel to the Qibla wall. That is why there are three aisles. The central aisle is somewhat lower than the two side aisles. There are windows on both the east and west that illuminate the hall. Al Ashraf Barsbay complex features unusual decoration. The windows are with stucco and colored glass. The floor adorned with inlaid poly-chrome marbles of high quality.

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The prayer niche (Mihrab) of Al Ashraf Barsbay complex is also of plain stone. The ceiling of painted wood was a restoration of the Ottoman period. Even though the pulpit (Minbar) has a star geometric pattern of ivory inlaid in wood. It is also unusual in having curved segments. This masterpiece presented as a gift to the foundation in 1453. It is perhaps the most beautiful Mamluk Minbar in Cairo. On the northern side of the mosque, the central aisle leads to the door of the primary mausoleum. The plan of the mosque allows a perfect position for the sultan’s mausoleum. It is open on three sides, while at the same time attached to the prayer hall. On the interior, the dome’s transitional zone made up of stalactite pendentives.

Neither the exterior nor the rest of the interior prepares one for the height of the dome. Sultan Barsbay used materials from earlier buildings within this mausoleum. The marble inlays of the prayer niche is from good quality. The rows of niches running across the conch. They are reminiscent of the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. Sultan Al Ashraf Barsbay buried in this mausoleum. rather than his other mausoleum built in the city proper. Next to the mosque and mausoleum to the south are the remains of the student residences (rab). The foundation provides that there were ten of these. Unlike earlier accommodations, these were not single rooms. They were apartments in two storied duplexes, each with a latrine.

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In each of the upper rooms there is a window that looks out upon the main road. On the upper floor, there was also a hall. In fact, the hall for Sufi gatherings, of which all that remains is a prayer niche. These units appear comfortable. The families of the Sufism, who provided with a whole unit, allowed to live here as well. In earlier foundation deeds, Sufi often required to unmarried. There was no such in this one. At one time, Al Ashraf Barsbay complex extended along both sides of the road. Opposite the structure of Al Ashraf Barsbay complex there was a zawiya for the Rifai order. It restored in 1478. A Zawiya is a small structure. It is where the ideology of one Shaykh and his order (Tariqa) practiced from which it spread.

Zawiyas superseded Khanqahs as centers of Sufi learning. it became popular among the religious community. The Khanqah here appears to have been independent of any particular order of Sufi. Domes most often surmounted funerary structures. This dome is quite different form those on contemporary mausoleums. Of course, this building not used for funerary purposes. The dome made of brick with a plain exterior surface. The height of the dome not increased. It supported by squinches that start within, not above, the rectangular space.

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Later, these squinches rebuilt. Today they have a trilobed shape. They also have reminiscent of the portal treatment of the Khanqah of Barsbay. At one time, there was another zawiya on the same side of the street. It did not have a dome structure. Having two zawiyas unprecedented in previous complexes. There were also two Sabils (fountains) and other structures in Al Ashraf Barsbay complex. It also includes large apartments and various dependencies. Al Ashraf Barsbay complex points to a trend in Sufism away from the monastic life and to one less regulated.

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Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo Egypt

Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo

Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo information, tours, prices, booking

Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo includes mosque, Madrasa, Mausoleum and Muristan. Madrasa means school and Muristan means hospital. Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo located in Al Muiz Le Din Alla Street. It is in the area of Bein El Qasrein in Cairo. Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo features decoration in the facade and an interior plan. In fact, they highlight the influence of the Syrian style. The inscription on Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo highlights that it was Sultan El-Malek El-Mansour. He was one of the Tatar or Mongol who enslaved by El-Saleh Ayyub to be his retainers or Mamluks. In fact, they known as the Bahri Mamluks. It is since they lived on the Rodah Island on the Nile in the river citadel of El-Saleh. In fact, Qalawun served as the Sultan of Egypt in 1279. Moreover, he died in 1290 during his battle against the Crusaders in Acre.

In fact, the most attractive things in Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo are indeed the portal, facade and Minaret. Moreover, the portal decorated with interlocking poly-chrome. The facade preceded by many stair-steps with Thuluth inscriptions on it. Furthermore, it also divided into several bays with arches and double-tiered windows. The Minaret of Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo has a notable design. The lower part has a square shape. The top story ornamented with stucco carvings. Moreover, the middle part designed on the Syrian style. Next to the lower part of the Minaret one can see a Malqaf or wind scoop. In fact, it helps in allowing the fresh air to get into the building.

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Sultan Qalawun complex hospital indeed was one of the most prominent structure at that time. It equipped and supplied with a great number of skillful doctors. They treated all the known diseases including dysentery and fevers. The school at Sultan Qalawun complex supplied also with various means of entertainment. This is to please the patients such as music. One can see the hospital of Qalawun in front of Khesrew Sabil. It opens with a gateway that leads to a beautiful walk with trees on its either sides. The site of the old hospital occupied now by a clinic of eye diseases. The original hospital was consisting of four arched aisles and many rooms. The rooms were surrounding a central aisle. Some parts of this building ruined now. But it is worth to visit for its carved forms around the windows and the remaining three arched aisles.

In fact, the mosque at Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo stands on one of the sides of the main street. Its facade appears between the hospital and the mausoleum. The portal of the Madrasa distinguished by its bronze polygon. And also Mamluk buildings’ doors. The ceiling beamed and offered. The interior plan of the Madrasa consists of a central courtyard with two aisles at the end of it. The arched eastern aisle of the Madrasa evokes the style of the basilican churches in Syria. This is obvious in its classical pillars. And the decoration of the double – tiered arches. There are also beautiful stucco decorations in the Madrasa. At the end of this eastern aisle stands the Mihrab that is rich glass mosaic ornaments.

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The Mausoleum at Sultan Qalawun complex Cairo found in the right side of the main entrance of the complex. The cenotaph is remarkable . This because of its unusual height and the variety of decorations. And also because of the design that distinguish the Mamluk style in the following period. The tomb features beautiful stucco carvings. They ornament the arches and the handsome wooden Mashrabiya door. From inside, the tomb has an octagon in a square shape. It supported with piers and Granite columns. The columns that were from the palace of El-Saleh Ayyub in El Roda. The ceiling offered and beamed, while the walls beautified with marble patterns. The panels inlaid with poly-chrome stone in geometric patterns. The arches of the shrine ornamented with stucco carvings.

The Mihrab of the mausoleum is facing the Qibla. It inlaid in poly-chrome marble, blind arcade and mosaic niches. The cenotaph ornamented with a beautiful Mashrabiya screen. It involves the body of Sultan Qalawun and his successor Al Nasir Mohammad. The interior design of the mausoleum is eye-catching. It is because the thickness of the Qibla wall is different from the other walls. The aim of that is to make the interior part directed to the Mecca. It is while the outer face of it goes in parallel to the street. In 1869, this mausoleum restored. The outer part of it painted in bright and harmonious colors. It fade away now and this makes it look more beautiful.

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Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo Egypt

Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo

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Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo is a massive Mamluk era mosque. In fact, it located near the Citadel in Cairo. Its construction began in 1356. The work in Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo finished three years later. In fact, Sultan Hassan mosque was remarkable for its fantastic size and innovative architectural components. Sultan Hassan mosque designed to include schools for all four of the Sunni schools. They are Shafi’i, Malki, Hanafi and Hanbali. Sultan Hassan’s low profile seems inconsistent with the massive undertaking that was his mosque. The mosque’s grandeur makes sense given Sultan Hassan’s dramatic life. In fact, Sultan Hassan ascended the throne at the age of 13 in 1347. When he reached maturity in 1350, he arrested the Amir Manjaq.

Amir Manjaq controlled all the state’s affairs. Before that arrest, the Amir restricted to an allowance of just one hundred dirham per day. This pocket change collected by servants for the Sultan. At that time, the Amir Shaykhoun as estimated to have an income of 200,000 dirham per day. This deprivation may viewed as a prompt for his later extravagance. Upon taking over the reins, Sultan Hassan placed people of his own favor into positions of power. This happened at the expense of dignitaries currently in position. It upset many of them. Discontented Amirs arrested the Sultan in 1351, held him in jail for three years. They promoted his brother Salih to the throne. Hassan spent his time in jail studying and his obituaries commented on his learning as a result.

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He returned to power and again reshuffled the ruling establishment attempting to solidify power. Sultan Hassan assassinated by his commander in chief of the army, Yalbugha Al Umari. In fact, the commander was Mamluk and was not loyal. The commander rebelled against Sultan. That was because of Sultan’s extravagance in spending fortunes on women. A contemporary Syrian historian, Ibn Kathir, backed this reputation. Ibn Kathir blamed the sultan for his greed and squandering of public funds. The lavish expenses noted coincide with the Sultan’s extensive mosque. After his assassination, Sultan Hassan’s body hidden. It never found. Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo never served its purpose.

In fact, little information is available about the construction of Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo. The source available is Al Maqrizi writing six decades later. He had access to access to administrative documents that are unavailable to historians today. Maqrizi mentions that the construction of the mosque cost 30,000 dirham every day. It made it the most expensive mosque in medieval Cairo. Financing for Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo paid by the austerity of Manjaq. It paid also by extortion from subjects and by Shaykhoun’s wealth. Even the Sultan may have considered the mosque of too great an expense. An inscription on Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo notes the name of Amir Mohammed ibn Biylik. He was a supervisor of the construction of Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo.

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His name placed near Sultan Hassan’s in the inscription. The supervisor’s name alongside the patron’s demonstrated how massive an undertaking the mosque was. The emir’s high standing otherwise was another sign of this prestige. Other labor for Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo restricted by the population loss. It was because of the Black Death. But as this was such a large undertaking, it attracted craftsmen from all over the Mamluk Empire. The construction of the minarets is of particular interest. Plans called for four minarets, but only three ever constructed. One of the minarets collapsed and three hundred people killed. Al Maqrizi noted that the minaret’s fall ignited conversation across Cairo and Fustat about the impending downfall of the state.

Al Maqrizi noted also that a poet wrote lines in response. They said that the fall of the minaret meant that God was present in it. The conversations in the public came to fruition. Sultan Hassan’s assassination followed the minaret’s fall by thirty-three days. Construction of Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo continued after the Sultan’s death. But it still never completed. Sultan Hassan mosque built close to the Citadel. It is on the site of the Palace of Yalbugha al Yahawws. This meant as a pleasing site for the Sultan to look down on from his palace in the Citadel. During the medieval era, an open space connected the mosque and the Citadel. This proximity and the mosque’s sturdiness gave the mosque a unique strategic significance. Ibn Ilyas reported that it used by Mamluk rebels as a fort to attack the Citadel from.

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Mamluk rebels began to bombard the Citadel from there. For this reason, the Sultan Janbulat tried to demolish Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo. After three days of attempted demolition, he had little success and gave up. In fact, Sultan Barquq demolished the stairs to the two minarets. It was to make it less useful in attacks against the Citadel. The sheer size of Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo set it apart. Al Maqrizi noted that the height of the large iwan was superlative. It measured 65 cubits, five higher than Iwan of Kusraw at Al Mada’in in Iraq.

Several unique features about the mosque should also noted. The great dome not equaled in Egypt, Syria, Morocco and Yemen. Despite the thickness of the mausoleum walls, the dome made of wood. Sultan Hassan mosque’s dome was of an uncommon shape, that of an egg. The positioning of the mausoleum between two minarets was quite novel. Four minarets planned, but they never completed. This was an exceptional number for a mosque. The design of the twin portal minarets was uncommon as was the gigantic size of the mosque. Sultan Hassan mosque is the only instance of chinoiserie in Mamluk architecture. The setup of Sultan Hassan mosque Cairo was novel as well. The mausoleum placed behind the prayer hall. This might have thought profane, but it was not at the time.

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Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque Cairo

Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque

Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque Cairo information, tours, prices, booking

Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque situated in Qasaba district. It is northward Darb El Asfar in Cairo. The mosque established by Prince Sulayman. He occupied many prominent posts in the days of Mohammed Ali. Moreover, these posts include the Armor or the supervisor of the arsenal. He credited to building other buildings in Cairo at that time. In fact, Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque distinguished by the variety of decorations. Moreover, it combines between the Cairene style of decoration and other styles from Istanbul. This appears in the facade’s decoration and the windows over it.

Besides to the plant forms and the wooden eaves that appear in the mosque and the Sabil alike. Moreover, the interior plan of Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque consists of a central courtyard. It also divided into three main aisles and forecourt. Both of them directed to Mecca. Furthermore, next to the entrance, there is a balustrade for reciting Holy Quran. Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque has shallow keel-shaped arcades. They support the interior plan. The large marble inlaid Mihrab. In the upper floor of the mosque one can find the Malqaf. Malqaf is window scope. It designed for allowing the fresh air to enter the mosque.

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Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque dates back to 1839. It renowned for its “pencil-like” minaret. It is a tall and thin structure and which built in the Ottoman style. Sulayman Agha Al Silahdar mosque appears so elegant. This is because of the mixture of Ottoman, Cairene and other unexpected architectural styles. You might even spot some Baroque features on the mosque’s pillars. The refined window grills featuring arabesque patterns. They are also something you should pay attention to. The mosque also includes a beautiful round Sabil. The fountain not located under the Kuttab, but next to it.

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Al Salih Ayyub complex Cairo

Al Salih Ayyub Complex Egypt

Al Salih Ayyub Complex Cairo, tours, Booking

Al Salih Ayyub complex located on the famous Moezz Street in Cairo. It dates back to the mid-13th century. In fact, Al Salih Ayyub complex named after its builder, Al Salih Najm Al Din Ayyub. He reigned over Egypt from 1240 till 1249. Al Salih Ayyub was last Ayyubid sultan of Egypt. He died defending Egypt against the Crusader attack that led by Louis IX. He was the grandson of the more famous Salah Al Din Ayyub. In fact, he known in the West as Saladdin. Before his death, he built a rather unique school (madrasa) between 1242 and 1244. He then built a mausoleum. They now called Al Salih Ayyub complex. The mausoleum at the complex built in 1250 by Shajarat Al Durr. She was the wife of Al Salih Ayyub.

She outlived him and became famous as she ruled with the first of the Mamluk sultans after his death. Several madrasas built in Al Fustat (Cairo) during this period. Many of them are among houses and palaces. The construct of Al Salih Ayyub complex indeed is unique. It was the first known example of a tomb which attached to a madrasa. The transitional zone of the mausoleum has the earliest example. It is the example of a Cairene three-tiered brick. Another notable feature of the mausoleum at Al Salih Ayyub complex is that its Mihrab. It is the earliest extant example of an Egyptian prayer niche. It is with a marble lining. There are two carved wooden Qaranic friezes around the chamber. A part of the mausoleum protruded into the street. On this side were windows which fronted by iron grilles.

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The Mausoleum at Al Salih Ayyub complex became a site of grand Bahri Mamluk ceremonials. The madrasa at Al Salih Ayyub complex was the first to house all four Sunni legal schools. In fact, each was in a separate Iwan. Other schools of this period dedicated to either the Maliki or Shafi’i rites of Islamic law. This once also included the Hanafi and Hanbali rites as well. In doing so, it followed the example of the Madrasa Mustansiriyya in Baghdad (1233). In 1330, under the Mamluks, the Friday sermon introduced to this madrasa. The madrasa at Al Salih Ayyub complex became more than just a center of worship and scholarship. Moreover, the Madrasa of Al Salih Ayyub complex occupies part of the site. It is where the Great Fatimid Palace once stood.

Moreover, it is within the heart of the Fatimid city, as does part of the famous Khan El Khalili bazaar. It is rather difficult to spot because only the minaret remains visible behind a row of shops. Furthermore, this minaret is the only one to have survived intact that dates from the Ayyubid Period. The minaret rests upon the roof of a passage. They consists of a rectangular shaft. It receding into a second story in the shape of an octagon. It topped by a ribbed, angular roof resting on stalactites. The minaret rests the passage upon. In fact, it today known as Haret Al Salihiya. It separates the two wings of the madrasa. The entrance to the ally is actually the doorway to the madrasa. Some relics of wooden beams state that this passage covered.

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The passage entrance crowned with a beautiful keel-arched niche. Moreover, it is of carved stone with a foundation inscription of Naskhi script in its center. Flutes radiate from this decoration outward evolving into a frame of
stalactites. They are on the the border of the niche. Flanking this large central niche are two somewhat smaller recesses. They have fluted hoods within a rectangular frame with stalactite cresting. The facade that fronted both wings still stands, adorned with niches, reliefs and inscriptions. The decoration of this facade is somewhat like that of the nearby Al Aqmar Mosque. It hidden by shops. Its most visible adornments are panels. They consist of a keel-arched central section and rectangular panels over the rest.

Each of these panels recessed. Moreover, it also includes a windows, a style first appearing at Al Salih Talai mosque. The lintels of these windows carved in stone. Furthermore, the plan of the madrasa reconstructed by Creswell. Creswell found that it was a near duplicate of the earlier ruined madrasa of Al Malek Al Kamel. His plan shows that the two opposing wings on either side of the passage each had their own courtyards. Al Kamel had only one courtyard with two Iwans. In Al Shaih Al Din’s madrasa, the courtyards each had two vaulted Iwans. They facing each other across the courtyards. These four Iwans divided between the two wings. They served as study areas. Each designated to one of the four schools. Teachers actually taught in their own houses.

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The courtyard in the wing with its back to the street was smaller. In fact, the other larger wing oriented to Mecca. The Qibla orientation of the interior of this larger wing followed the street alignment. It accomplished by increasing the thickness of the wall of the Qibla facade. Thus, the windows became deep recesses. The lateral sides of each courtyard occupied by two stories of living units for the students. Today, only the northwest Iwan has survived. A doorway just to the left of the passage entrance. It gives access into the open courtyard at Al Salih Ayyub complex. In fact, the remains of the madrasa are evident in the form one of its Iwans. They still stand on the street side. A small, recent mosque was at one time which built into it.

Al Salih Ayyub complex represents the architectural and institutional transition. It is between the Fatimid monuments and the next Mamluk complexes. The minaret of the madrasa at Al Salih Ayyub complex, also known as Al Salihiyya. It has undergone recent restoration. Clean and sparkling, it shows a patchwork of old and new stone. It revealing the layers of its history.

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Ibn Tulun mosque Cairo Egypt

Ibn Tulun mosque Cairo Egypt

Ibn Tulun mosque Cairo Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

Ibn Tulun mosque Cairo is indeed the oldest intact functioning Islamic monument in Cairo. Moreover, it is the third mosque which constructed for the whole community. Furthermore, it is for the congregation which joined together for the Friday noon prayer. Ibn Tulun mosque Cairo indeed is a rare example which preserved of the art. Moreover, it is also an architecture of the classical period of Islam. Ahmed Ibn Tulun born about 835 A.D. He was one of the Turkish commanders in Samarra in Iraq. Moreover, he received his military and theological training in Samarra and Tarsus. His intelligence and courage attracted the attention of the Khalif. In 868, he made proxy for his step-father Bakabak’s governorship of Egypt. He established himself as an independent ruler for the Province. An abortive attempt to remove him encouraged Ahmed to attach Syria.

Ahmed Ibn Tulun founded a new Capital called Alqatai around the hill of Gabal Yashkur. It is to the North East of Al Fustat, razing the Christian and the Jewish cemetery. The site chosen for his mosque was an outcrop of rock which called Gabal Yashkur. Indeed, Ibn Tulun Mosque Cairo is one of the biggest mosques in Egypt. The mosque together with the ziyada occupie an area of 6.5 acres. In fact, it is square in shape, measures 162 meter in length and 161 meter in width. Moreover, the area which dedicated for the prayer is rectangular in shape measures about 137 x 118 meter. Ibn Tulun mosque Cairo designed as open court or central square Sahn (about 92 m) Surrounded by four riwaqs. The riwaq of the qibla contains five arcades. Each of the other riwaqs consists of two arcades.

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Ibn Tulun mosque Cairo surrounded by Ziyadas ( extension) on three sides. In fact, Ziyada is an enclosed space or precinct. It was to separate the mosque from the markets. It is also to protect the mosque and the prayers from the noise of the street. Moreover, outside Ibn Tulun Mosque Cairo on the Qibla wall, there was a palace. It called Dar El Imarah which means house of the government. In fcat, it destroyed now. Its entrance is near to the Mihrab. Ahmed Ibn Tulun used it to enter to the mosque before leading the prayer. Furthermore, Ibn Tulun Mosque Cairo has 19 doors on 3 sides. Each door corresponding to another door in the ziyadas. There are another three doors which cut in the wall of the quibla. The lintels composed of palm-trunks. They boxed with wood and above a releasing arch.

In fact, some of these doors still keep their original carving. On the right hand central Pier of the third arcade from the Sahn is the Foundation Slate. In fact, it includes the Foundation Inscription. Moreover, it is a rectangular slab of marble ( 1,6 m X 97 cm) which written in Kufic inscription. It contains the verse of El Kursi ( Ayet El Kursi) from the Koran. Furthermore, it contains also the date of 265 A.H. The walls of Ibn Tulun mosque and the Ziyada crowned with crenelation. They are like the paper which cut-outs of human figures with linked arms. Ibn Tulun mosque is square in shape, each of its sides measures about 92 m. The original courtyard not paved. It filled with pebbles as it is today. It is because this space intended for prayer. The Fawarah in the middle of the Sahn is the third one.

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The first one was the original which built by Ahmed Ibn Tulun. It gilded and stood on ten columns of marble. The second one was Al Aziz. In fact, it now destroyed. The actual one is the third which built by Sultan Lagin Al Mansoury. It is among some other works he did for Ibn Tulun mosque Cairo. Moreover, it is 14 x 12 meter and it is twenty meter in height. This Fawarah built by the architect Ibn Al Roumyyah. It has a Mameluk design. Moreover, it stands on 4 pointed arches. The zone of transition stepped corners with a window in the uppermost step. Furthermore, three windows of three lights are on each side. The dome is plain without a drum and raised on squinch. The arcades around the courtyard are deeper on the quibla Riwaq. Moreover, the sanctuary side formed by pointed Arches on brick Piers.

Rosettes and windows form a continuous and simple decoration. Moreover, these arcades supported by piers. Unlike columns. These Piers are rectangular. In fact, they decorated with four masonry-engaged columns. Their capitals have the same bell shape as the bases and both plastered and carved. Furthermore, all the arcades had soffits of curved stucco. They are like those which have restored in the Southern arcade. The Arches of the arcades pointed. They outlined with an edge of carved stucco. They spring from oblong supports rounded at the corners by pilasters or engaged columns. The Qibla Riwak of Ibn Tulun mosque includes 5 aisles deeper than the others. They are parallel to the Prayer niche ( the Mihrab). Each of the other riwaq includes just 2 aisles . This Riwaq actually has 6 prayer niches or mihrabs.

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The main Mihrab is in the middle of the Qibla wall. It is the tallest and the only concave one. The others are flat. It consists of a double pointed arched recess flanked by a pair Byzantine style marble. Its stucco molding and the 2 stucco bosses on each side of the arch are original. The interior decorated in Mameluk style made by the sultan Lajin. The upper decoration of painted wood. Strips of poly-chrome marble, above which is a band of Naskhi inscription. It is in black mosaic on a gold background containing the shahada. The Dikka of the Mouballegh (the bench of the Mouballegh) situated in Riwaq. Al Qibla near the courtyard. It is a wide bench of marble columns which used for communicating the words of the Imam during the prayer.

The ceiling of Ibn Tulun mosque in Cairo, composed of Palm logs boxed in wooden panels. Below the ceiling there are a long band of inscription on sycamore wood. It runs around the whole mosque. It contains verses from the Koran. This frieze is 2 Km in length and it is calculate one fifteenth of the whole holly book. There is a legend that the boards for this inscription left over from the Noah’s Ark. The upper part of Ibn Tulun mosque Cairo wall pierced with pointed arch windows. They flanked with colonnades. The windows alternate on the outside wall within blind niches with a shell conch. There are 128 windows and their arrangements on the walls. They are independent of the arches so that not every arch has a centered window.

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The functions of these arched windows of the arched windows are providing light. They also reduce the weight carried by the arches. Creswell attributes only 4 of the windows stucco grills to the Tulunide Period. These of the plain geometrical design. The rest displaying a large variety of more complicated geometrical patterns. They date back to the Fatimide and the Mameluk Periods. The minaret stands on the North side of the Ziyada. A door leads to it. It is an unusual stone structure with an outer staircase and a Mameluk top of the type. In fact, it named Mabkhara. This minaret caused controversy among the Cairo’s Architectural historians. We don’t have enough sources to clear this point or determine its date.

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Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo

Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo Egypt

Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo information, tours, booking

Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo indeed has a unique location. It gives its vicinity to The Citadel. Moreover, its construction is on a high hill. In fact, Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo has a panoramic view of the Citadel square. It also has a panoramic view of Sultan Hassan mosque and Al Rifai Mosque. Gawhar Al Lala mosque reached through a stepped passageway. It has a spacious terrace in front where one can get a high glimpse of the Citadel Square. Furthermore, Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo can reached from the Citadel Square through a stepped street behind Al Rifai Mosque. Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo lies quite close to Qanibay Amir Akhur mosque. It built in 1430 AC and considered small at only 2,000 square feet. This 15th century Mamluk mosque built by Amir Gawhar Al Lala. He was a civil servant in the palace of Sultan Barsbay.

Al Lala was a title which given to the post of the private tutors of the sons of a Sultan. During Mamluk era, the wall over the Citadel square embellished with dazzling palaces. Mosques reflecting the grandeur and commemorating the lives of the Sultans. Citadel Square is one of the oldest squares in modern Cairo. During the Ayyubid rule, it became the city center of gravity. It was where the leaders of Egypt ruled the country. During the Mamluk era, construction continued within the Citadel walls. It also was around the square with the houses of Sultan Baybars amirs and successors. The horse and armorers markets or Suqs also moved to this area in the vicinity of Sultan Hassan mosque.

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Around Cairo Citadel, many religious buildings also erected and included Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo. In fact, Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo was a freed slave. He was in service to the son of Barsbay who succeeded his father for three months. Gawhar honored by the prince. He fell from his high ranks and thrown in prison where he died as a result of an epileptic fit. Moreover, he known for his kind heart and his good deeds. He much appreciated by many of his students. It was even during the times of his imprisonment. Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo planned like the lines of the cruciform madrasas. It was popular at the time of the Circassian Mamluks in the 9th till 15th century. It has decorative features and elements of the mid-Mamluk period.

The main entrance of Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo flanked by stone benches. It called Maksala and leads to a Derka. In fact, it is a rectangular hallway, from which a bent passageway. It takes one through a secondary door leading to the Sahn or covered courtyard of the mosque. The wooden ceiling of the passageway decorated with fine paintings. The Sahn of Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo decorated with colored marble and with attractive marble panels on the floors. It adorned by a decorated yet a bit faded wooden lantern. Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo has two side Iwans and two main Iwans. The largest being that of the Qibla. It paneled in slabs of cool marble and soft colors. The Minbar, or pulpit, might seem different from other Minbars of this period.

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The inlay polygonal inserts are missing and have replaced with plain forms. These alterations date back to the time of its restoration. The restoration made by the French Comite in the 1980s. There is a building next to Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo. This building has a sabil-kuttab and a mausoleum. Gawhar Al Lala buried in this mausoleum. There are also quarters. They used as storerooms and lodgings for the students and civil servants. The main entrance in the center of the southwest facade overlooks Darb Al Labbana Street. The sabil with its wall built of wood. It located in the southern section of the structure. It is of a type of Sabil that has corner columns. The kuttab located above the Sabil. A carved wooden Mashrabeyya surrounds the balcony of the kuttab.

The minaret of Gawhar Al Lala rises above the Sabil facade. It built in the Knob style and called Al Qulla style. Moreover, it is with a single balcony. The mausoleum dome, where the tomb of Al Gawhar found, situated on the western corner. The fine old door leads to the mausoleum through the mosque. It made of wood. It distinguished by an overlay of fine and detailed copper decoration. Today, there is a gallery in the northwest Iwan. It has draped so that women may pray there. Gawhar Al Lala mosque Cairo still in use and frequented by many visitors. A caretaker will show one around the mosque and mausoleum. The ablution area that stands today is a recent addition. No sign of the old ablution area remains.

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Blue mosque Cairo Aqsunqer mosque

Blue mosque Aqsunqur mosque Cairo Egypt

Information about Blue mosque Cairo (Aqsunqur mosque), tours, Booking

Blue Mosque Cairo also called Aqsunqur Mosque or the Mosque of Ibrahim Agha. In fact, the mosque is one of several “blue Mosques” in the world. In fact, it situated in the Tabbana Quarter in Islamic Cairo. Moreover, it is between Bab Zuweila and the Citadel of Saladin (Cairo Citadel.) Blue Mosque Cairo (Aqsunqur Mosque) also serves as a funerary complex. Furthermore, it contains the mausoleums of its founder Shams Al Din Aqsunqur and his sons. Aqsunqur Mosque also contains number of children of the Bahri Mamluk sultan Al Nasser Muhammad. It also contains Ibrahim Agha Al Mustahfizan tomb. Aqsunqur mosque in Cairo built in 1347. It was on the orders of the prince Shams Al Din Aqsunqur. In fact, it was during the Mamluk Sultanate of Al Muzaffar Hajji.

Aqsunqur was the son-in-law of former sultan Al Nasir Muhammad. He was one of the more prominent emirs of the latter’s court. Al Maqrizi was Medieval Muslim historian. He noted Aqsunqur supervised the entire project and also participated in its actual construction. Being the former governor of Tripoli, he had the mosque built in a Syrian architectural style. It built around the late sultan Al Ashraf Kujuk’s mausoleum. In fact, it constructed in 1341. The mausoleum’s incorporation within the mosque accounts for the irregularity of the building’s structure. Aqsunqur’s grave also located in Blue mosque complex along with those of his sons. A mausoleum for Al Sultan Shaaban’s mother built in 1362. She was one of Al Nasser’s wives and mother of sultan Kamal Shaaban.

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In fact, Blue mosque Cairo was reportedly in poor shape in 15th century. In fact, it was due to the loss of waqf funds from Syria. Waqf is religious endowments. Because of that, Aqsunqur mosque used only for Friday prayers and religious holidays. In 1412 an ablution fountain built in the center of the courtyard. It was by the Mamluk Amir Tughan. In fact, the prince Ibrahim Agha Al Mustahfizan was a general of the Jannisaries. He began a major renovation project for Aqsunqur mosque. It was Between 1652 and 1654 during Ottoman rule. He restored its roof and arcades. Moreover, he added columns to support the mosque’s southern prayer hall. He decorated the building with blue and green tiles. Hence the mosque’s unofficial name as the “Blue Mosque”.

The tiles imported from Constantinople and Damascus. They crafted in the Iznik style with floral motifs. Floral motif are such as cypress trees and vases holding tulips. Ibrahim Agha built his mausoleum and decorated it with marble tiles, in the southern hall. Moreover, it constructed using the typical Mamluk architectural style. It included a mihrab “prayer niche” resembling the mausoleums of Mamluk emirs. It also located in the Blue mosque Cairo or Aqsunqur mosque complex. The Blue Mosque Cairo renamed after its restorer to Ibrahim Agha Mosque. The latter name not used frequently. In 1908 the Blue mosque Cairo restored by the Comité de Conservation des Monuments de l’Art Arabe.

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The 1992 Cairo earthquake damaged the arches of the mosque’s porticoes. But they reinforced by the Egyptian government in the mid-1990. It was to prevent extra deterioration. Aga Khan Trust for Culture abbreviated as (AKTC). It is with the World Monuments Fund began a restoration project of the Blue mosque Cairo in 2009. The AKTC stated the restoration would finished in 2012. Renovation work would focus structural stability, conservation of the interior and roof repair. Aqsunqur mosque Cairo also became a major destination for tourists who visit Egypt. Blue mosque general layout consists of a large open courtyard (sahn). It enclosed by four arcades (riwaqs.) There are three main entrances with the main portal opening into the western arcade. The latter consists of a large pointed arch with corbels on the front edges of its roof.

Facing the courtyard is the dikka “tribune” from which the Qur’an recited. Kujuk’s mausoleum situated at the portal’s northern side. It has two facades facing the street. Of the two alternative entrances, one opens into the southern arcade. The other opens between the northern and western arcades. Kujuk’s mausoleum predates the Blue mosque. Unlike other tombs in Cairo, it not aligned according to the qibla. Qibla is orientation with Mecca. Instead, it aligned with the street. This structure is the principal feature unique to other major mosques in Egypt. Above the prayer hall sits a brick one-bay dome carried on four brick squinches. A large brick dome supported by brick squinches also situated atop the mausoleum of Kujuk.

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The latter has a pendentive below each squinch. Two stone domes located over the mausoleum of Tankizbugha. Another stone dome built above the tomb of Al Sultan Al Sha’ban’s mother. The mosque’s interior also has an irregular layout due to Ibrahim Agha’s renovations. It replaced most of the original cross-vaulting of the arcades with columns. They support a flat wooden ceiling. Qibla wall uses cross-vaults that rest on octagonal-shaped piers. The technique of cross-vaults is a reflection of Islamic Syrian architectural influence. Along with the Mosque of Amir Al Maridani, Aqsunqur Mosque has a hypo-style plan which is rare in Cairo. It associated with Syrian style mosques.

The mihrab (prayer niche that indicates qibla) built in a geometric interlace style. It found in Mamluk architecture. The design used in the mihrab’s spandrels. Other features of the mihrab include the hood’s relief painted carvings. They include fluctuating lintel panels and marble panels, carved marble registers and mosaic inlay. To the right of the mihrab is the marble minbar “pulpit”. The pulpit decorated with light gray and salmon. It is green and plum-colored stone inserts. It is the oldest and one of the handful remaining marble minbars used in a Cairo mosque. The handrail also built of marble. It also has a pattern of rolling leaf and grape clusters carved from the stone.

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The minaret situated at the southern corner of the facade. They are looking into Bab Al Wazir Street. They are affording a dominant view of the entire southern part of the street. It consists of three stories. The first being circular and plain. The second circular and ribbed. The top story is a bulb resting on a pavilion supported by eight slender stone columns. Its circular shaft is rare among Mamluk minarets. Before its 20th-century restoration, the minaret had four stories. The third story was octagonal and removed during the restoration. The Aqsunqur mosque Cairo minaret featured in several 19th-century illustrations.

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