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Beni Hassan tombs El Minya Egypt

Beni Hassan tombs Egypt

Beni Hassan tombs El Minya, Egypt information, tours, booking

Beni Hassan tombs are an important group of rock-cut tombs. In fact, Beni Hassan tombs located in a small village which holds the same name in El Minay, Egypt. El Minya is a big city which located about 224 kilometer south of Cairo. Moreover, Beni Hassan tombs carved into the high limestone cliffs on the east bank of the Nile. In fact, Beni Hassan tombs date back to Dynasties XI and XII. Moreover, there are a few smaller and less elaborate ones which belong to Dynasty VI. In fact, it was when provincial rulers establish their independent power.

Beni Hassan tombs reached via a long steep flight of stone steps up the hillside. Moreover, it is from where there is a magnificent view up and down the Nile Valley. The most important of Beni Hassan tombs belonged to provincial rulers of the 16th Upper Egyptian Nome. Beni Hassan tombs feature 39 tombs on the upper part of the cliff. In fact, only 12 tombs decorated. Moreover, only four of Beni Hassan tombs currently opened to the visitors. It is along with another tomb which not decorated tomb. In fact, these tombs features the distinctive style of mortuary art characteristic. They are of the early Middle Kingdom with their painted scenes. In fact, the scenes are of daily life, recreation and military activities. The location of the cemetery on the east bank of the Nile is somewhat unusual.

Further details about Beni Hassan tombs:

In fact, the west of Beni Hassan tombs site was the domain of Osiris. Furthermore, the necropolis recorded by several early explorers. Moreover, between 1890 and 1894 the site of Beni Hassan tombs surveyed by Percy Newerry. In fact, it was on behalf of the Egypt Exploration Fund. John Garstang excavated some of the Dynasty VI to Dynasty XII of Beni Hassan tombs. In fact, it was during 1902 to 1904. Nina de Garis Davis copied wall-scenes in 1931. In the early 1980 some of the Dynasty XII Beni Hassan tombs cleaned of their grime. In fact, it was by the Egyptian Antiquities Organization. Moreover, the Egyptian organization restored the wall paintings to their original bright colors.

Tomb of Baqet III at Beni Hassan tombs:

The tomb of Baqet III is the earliest of Beni Hassan tombs which are open. In fact, Baqet was the provincial governor of Menat Khufu (modern El Minya). It was during the later years of Dynasty XI. A large rectangular cult chapel lies behind the plain tomb facade. Moreover, it is with two slender lotus columns. In fact, the columns separate the front part of the chapel from the rear. The north wall of the tomb has many painted scenes which depict Baqet and his life. In fact, his life was in the provincial community. Furthermore, the scenes also include the desert hunt with many types of animals. Moreover, the scenes also include industrial scenes of weaving and spinning. They also include goldsmiths and sculptors which mingled with scenes of country living.

In fact, the scenes also include hunting and fishing in the marshes. Moreover, the scenes also include catching birds and gathering papyrus. Battle scenes shown on the east wall, along with wrestlers. In fact, they seem to be a feature of the decoration in tombs in this period. The south wall depicts more traditional funerary scenes. In fact, it is with the deceased’s statue which dragged on a sledge to the tomb. Moreover, it accompanied by offering-bringers. In fact, it also includes recreational scenes of sports and playing senet. There is also a small L-shaped statue chamber in the eastern side of the south wall.

Tomb of Khety at Beni Hassan tombs:

Khety, also a Dynasty XI governor, was the son of Baqet. The architecture of his tomb is like that of his father’s. Moreover, the tomb features six slender closed lotus pillars in the rear part. The east and north walls of the tomb decorated with scenes. In fact, the scenes depict the fowling and the papyrus harvest. Moreover, the scenes also depict hunting in the desert and local industries below. Khety and his wife shown presiding over the activities. Moreover, they watch women dancing and playing games. Clappers, dancers and musicians shown before Khety’s statue. Moreover, they dragged on a sledge.

On the east wall there are long scenes of men who practice unarmed combat or wrestling. The movements can seen easily because the bodies painted in contrasting shades. Towards the left-hand side, battle scenes show a fortress under siege. In fact, it is with piles of slain bodies towards the right-hand side. The south wall contains agricultural scenes including wine-making, ploughing and processions of colorful cattle. The funeral rites also depicted with the traditional boats. Moreover, there also offering-bringers and butchers on the west wall.

Tomb of Amenemhet at Beni Hassan tombs:

The tomb of Amenemhet, who called Ameni, dates back to Dynasty XII. In fact, the tomb is a little more elaborate than the earlier tombs. The tomb-owner’s biographical text dated back to year 43, month 2 of the season of inundation. Moreover, it also dated back to day 15 of Senusret I’s reign. Amenemhet was the last holder of the hereditary title. In fact, the title was “Great Overlord of the Province of the Oryx”. The architecture of Amenemhet’s tomb differs from the earlier style. In fact, the tomb has a courtyard and a portico with two columns. The columns are before the entrance to the tomb chapel. In fact, the tomb chapel is large and rectangular. Moreover, it contains four wide polygonal pillars and two burial shafts.

An decorated ceiling divided into three naves, each with a vaulted roof. The wall-paintings contain themes like to the earlier tombs. The paintings features agriculture and industries and hunting in the desert scenes. Moreover, the scenes also include military activities and funeral rites with offering-bringers. A large offering list appears across the top of the south wall. In fact, it is before Amenemhet who sits with his wife at a table. The table contains all the produce of his lands. These later tombs also contain a small statue chamber, to the east beyond the tomb chapel. Furthermore, the tomb house the remains of a statue group. In fact, the statue depicts the owner with his wife and mother, with an offering table in front.

Tomb of Khnumhotep II at Beni Hassan tombs:

In fact, Khnumhotep II was a successor of Amenemhet. Moreover, he occupied one of the latest of the Middle Kingdom tombs which built at Beni Hassan. Although he was a provincial governor, his power was less than that of his predecessor. In fact, the Middle Kingdom government of Egypt became stronger. His titles include “Hereditary Chief” and “King’s Acquaintance”. Moreover, his titles also include “One who Beloved of his God’. The tomb has four polygonal columns in the tomb-chapel. In fact, they are behind the impressive facade and portico. The same themes continued in the wall decoration too. But in fact, the scenes are more colorful and lively. They make the tomb perhaps the most interesting and distinctive of the Beni Hassan tombs.

On the north wall there is a famous scene. In fact, the scene depicts a caravan of Asiatics in their striped robes. They bring gazelles and other items to trade. Two especially beautiful scenes dominate the east wall which depict Khnumhotep with his family. Moreover, they depict fowling and snaring birds in the marshes in a papyrus skiff. In fact, the tomb features autobiographical text which well preserved. Moreover, the text can seen running along the base of the walls and painted to simulate granite. The tomb also has statue chamber behind an elaborate doorway. In fact, it is on the east side of the tomb-chapel. Moreover, it contains the lower part of a statue of the deceased.

How to get to Beni Hassan tombs:

Beni Hassan tombs located on the east bank of the Nile, about 20 km south of El Minya. Moreover, the site of Beni Hassan tombs features a new rest-house. In fact, this rest house recently constructed and serves good coffee. Moreover, Beni Hassan tombs site has a ticket office at the entrance to the site. Tickets of Beni Hassan tombs cost 40 Egyptian pound. Photography no longer allowed inside any of Beni Hassan tombs.

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Ain Asil Dakhla Oasis Egypt

Ain Asil Egypt

Ain Asil Dakhla Oasis, Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

Ain Asil settlement located about 3 kilometer east of Balat in Dakhal Oasis, Egypt. Moreover, Ain Asil also located 8 kilometer north west of Tineida. In fact, it is at the junction where the ancient Darb el-Tawil joins other routes through the oasis. Ain Asil features important remains of a governor’s palace, houses and workshops. The site already investigated by a team from the French Institute of Oriental Archaeology. In fact, the investigation is since 1977. The site at Ain Asil features a small fortified enclosure. Moreover, the site later encompassed a rectangular area of 33 hectares. In fact, the area split into two separate parts. The earliest part is the fortress area which located to the north with a mud-brick settlement. In fact, the settlement extends to the south and east.

The site had an administrative center for Dakhla during the reigns of Pepi I and Pepi II. Most of the town destroyed by a fire at the end of the Old Kingdom and abandoned for a time. Moreover, Ain Asil had a rare discovery of inscribed clay tablets. In fact, the tablets date back to Dynasty VI. This discovery proves that Dakhla Oasis linked to the Nile Valley during this time. Moreover, the tablets contain names of governors of the oasis and their households. In fact, they written in hieratic script. Furthermore, the tablets have lists of distribution of goods. Moreover, the tablets also contain the food supplies to the palace. Furthermore, they also have valuable information which written on papyrus in other areas of Egypt.

Further details about Ain Asil:

The fortress later adapted to other uses. From the fortress, the town sprawls to the south along a main street. Moreover, the town also sprawls to the east. In fact, it is whereas the principal administrative building or palace existed. The administrative building contained a courtyard which was a public audience area. The surrounding apartments rose to a height of 4 meter with walls which painted in yellow ocher. Furthermore, the walls have wooden columns on limestone bases. Off to the sides, two superimposed levels of vaulted magazines uncovered. In fact, they used for the storage of produce because of remains of oil jars which found. Yet, they emptied before the construction of a third level.

In fact, these built under a governor who called Medunefer. He was also the one who constructed a cult chapel there. In fact, his name and titles can seen on the restored doorway to the naos. Moreover, there is also another governor name which found within the palace area. In fact, the name is Khentika. Moreover, the site also encompassed seals which bear the name of Pepi II. Furthermore, Ain Asil also contains the names of at least five generations of governors. In fact, each one erected a small sanctuary for himself. Other excavations of the settlement revealed many large dwellings. In fact, they are much larger than those rare examples found in the Nile Valley. Some of these have remains of staircases which lead up to a roof terrace.

More details about Ain Asil:

Furthermore, Ain Asil site comprises bakeries with ovens, grinding stones and pottery jars. In fact, they were for baking the bread along with ceramic workshops. Moreover, many pottery fragments found in the site. In fact, the fire destroyed much of the early town. Yet part of the fortress-like structure rebuilt during the First Intermediate Period. In fact, it rebuilt to include the enclosure wall and a canal. The destruction by fire allowed archaeologists to gain much information. In fact, the information is about the Old Kingdom structures. Finally, the site abandoned before the Ptolemaic Period. Moreover, no Roman remains found at the site of Ain Asil.

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Al Muzawaka tombs Dakhla Oasis Egypt

Al Muzawaka tombs Egypt

Al Muzawaka tombs Dakhla Oasis, Egypt information, tours, booking

Al Muzawaka tombs or Muzawaka tombs located in Dakhla oasis, Egypt. In fact, the tombsare a part of the Amheida cemeteries. Moreover, the tombs consists of a series of small soft stone hills or ridges in which over 300 tombs cut. In fact, the name means “The Decorated Hill”. A few of these tombs decorated in a mixture of traditional Egyptian and classical style. In fact, it was in the Roman period in the first and second centuries after the birth. Moreover, many of the tombs still not excavated. Two of the most interesting tombs belong to Petubastis and Petosiris. In fact, the tombs are outstanding for their exquisite colorful fresco.

The tomb of Petubastis consists of a single decorated chamber. It is with recessed shelves which intended to house the mummies of the deceased. On the eastern wall is a portrait of the tomb-owner which painted onto plaster. The ceiling of the chapel painted with a zodiac in the style of the first century AC. The second tomb belongs to Petosiris. In fact, the second tomb dates back to the early part of the second century AC. Moreover, the tomb contains two chambers. The owner again portrayed on the northern wall of the outer chamber. In fact, he portrayed as a large figure who wears a long pink Roman-style toga.

Further details about Al Muzawaka tombs:

Furthermore, he surrounded by representations of traditional ancient Egyptian religious symbols. In fact, the symbols include a hieroglyphic text. The inner chamber depicts the weighing of the deceased’s heart. It is before Osiris while Isis provides a libation for the spirit of Padiosir. The tomb also features scenes which are reminiscent of the New Kingdom funerary art. Furthermore the tomb features a more complex zodiac than the one in the tomb of Petubastis. In fact, it painted with figures of birds and animals. Moreover, it also has figures of a scarab and the god Horus. Furthermore it also has the usual representations of the constellations.

In fact, there is no evidence that these two tombs contained burials. Yet, many mummified bodies found in neighboring tombs which not decorated. Simple inscriptions also found in some of the other Al Muzawaka tombs. In fact, the inscriptions provide information about the spiritual beliefs. Moreover, they also show information about the customs of the Roman inhabitants of Dakhla Oasis.

More details about Al Muzawaka tombs:

Al Muzawaka tombs indeed well known of for many years. Moreover, they well-plundered for many artifacts of value. The two major tombs photographed by Herbert Winlock in 1908. In fact, the two tombs only rediscovered by Ahmed Fakhry. It was in 1972 after which time the damaged fresco restored. In 1998 the tombs of Petubastis and Padiosir Petosiris once again closed to the public. In fact, it was because the ceilings were in a state of collapse. Yet, the restoration now completed. A new visitor center also built at Al Muzawaka tombs site.

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Qila Al Dabba Mastabas Dakhla Oasis Egypt

Qila Al Dabba Mastabas

Qila Al Dabba Mastabas Dakhla oasis, Egypt information, tours, booking

Qila Al Dabba Mastabas are necropolis which located in Dakhla oasis, Egypt. In fact, Qila Al Dabba Mastabas associated with the Old Kingdom settlement at Ain Asil. Moreover, Qila Al Dabba Mastabas located about 1.5 kilometer to the west of the ancient town of Al Qasr. The site investigated in 1970s by Egyptian archaeologist Ahmad Fakhry. In fact, he uncovered four large mud-brick mastabas. They belong to the governors of Dakhla oasis. Since 1986 the site excavated and six or seven mastabas found. One of them contained the mummy of a Dynasty VI ruler. Qila Al Dabba Mastabas field surrounded by many smaller graves. In fact, the graves are from the Old Kingdom and the First Intermediate Period.

These graves are simple oval pits with a descending staircase. Moreover, other tombs dug into the rock and covered by mud-brick vaulted roofs. The mastabas constructed in steps from mud-bricks and dressed with slabs of limestone. When found, the tombs were in various stages of ruin. Furthermore, they followed the plan of a large brick enclosure. The enclosure surrounds a courtyard in which the mastaba stood. Moreover, the tombs had facades like others of the Old Kingdom. Furthermore, they also had a funerary stela at the entrance which identified the occupant. Stela and jambs from the tomb of governor Ima Pepi can seen in the Kharga Heritage Museum.

Further details about Qila Al Dabba Mastabas:

Qila Al Dabba tombs show important differences in their construction. The first type had a substructure which contains several burial chambers. In fact, the chambers were for family members. Moreover, the superstructures built over vast excavations in the open air. Examples of this type are the mastabas of Ima-Pepi I (reign of Pepi I) and Khentika (reign of Pepi II). The second construction type contained only one burial chamber. It also contained an antechamber and store rooms which built from stone and mud-brick. This was the type favored Ima-Pepi II (reign of Pepi II) and Medunefer (reign of Pepi II). In fact, they are generally smaller structures. Inside the tombs there are sometimes some rooms, antechambers and burial chambers.

The burial chambers have barrel-vaulted roofs. The first which identified, was the tomb of the governor Medunefer. In fact, Medunefer served during the reign of Pepi II. This tomb contained funerary goods including gold jewelry. In the mastaba of Khentikau-Pepi, over 100 pottery vessels found. In fact, they found in fragments beneath the fallen masonry in the underground chambers. Khentika governor also built mastabas at Qila Al Dabba. In fact, he was also from the reign of Pepi II. His painted subterranean chambers restored. Ima-Pepi’s later tomb shows an improvement in construction techniques. The most recent reconstruction is the burial chamber of an individual called Bitsu. In fact, this burial chamber contains vivid painted scenes. The scenes depict his family and part of a star-painted ceiling which suspended above.

More details about Qila Al Dabba Mastabas:

The mastabas of the wealthy governors contained rich burial equipment. In fact, the equipment feature wooden or ceramic coffins. Yet, further cemeteries which contain more modest burials also found. In fact, they located to the south and east of Qila Al Dabba Mastabas. These poorer members of the community often buried in simple pits. Moreover, they wrapped only in layers of matting. Many skeletons found in the Qila Al Dabba Mastabas necropolis. In fact, some of the pottery and other artifacts from the site are on display also in the Kharga Museum. Moreover, some of them also displayed at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

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Meir Asyut Egypt

Meir Egypt

Meir Asyut, Egypt information, tours, prices and booking

Meir located 50 kilometer north west of Asyut, Egypt at the edge of the cultivation. In fact, the modern town of El Quseya located about 8 km to the east of Meir. El Quseya derives its name from the ancient Qis during Graeco-Roman times. In fact, Qis was the capital of the 14th Upper Egyptian Nome. Yet, there are few remaining traces of the ancient town. The provincial rulers buried in tombs high in the hillside in the necropolis at Meir. In fact, it was with the more humble population further down the slope. Meir had little archaeological attention since the tombs first published by Aylward Blackman.

In fact, it was for the Egypt Exploration Fund in 1914. And then, Meir excavated by Sayed Pasha Kabasha in 1919. In fact, model boats and coffins found at Meir. Since then, the area was inaccessible to tourists. Recently several of the tombs cleared and opened to the visitors. The cemetery has many important rock-cut tombs which date back to Dynasty VI and Dynasty XII. In fact, the tombs contain amazing painted scenes and characterized by their naturalistic qualities. Moreover, many of the tombs contain detailed scenes of daily life. In fact, the scenes include industries, sports and have a distinct local style.

Tomb of Niankh-hpepy (Meir A-1):

In fact, Niankh-hpepy also known by the name of “Hepi the Black”. His large tomb reflects his important status of Chancellor of Pepi I during Dynasty VI. Moreover, the tomb contains four chambers. In the first and largest of them, Niankh-hpepy and his wife depicted while they receive offerings. The offerings are of cattle, birds, animals, food and observing fishing and fowling. Furthermore, it is with the preparation of the catch. On the western wall of the tomb there is a stela with an offering slab in the front. Moreover, there are many shafts in Niankh-hpepy’s tomb, for the burials of his Family.

Tomb of Pepyankh (Meir A-2):

In fact, Pepyankh was the son of Niankh-hpepy and called “Heni the Black”. His tomb adjoins the tomb of his father and larger than it. In fact, the tomb contains many scenes with details. The details are of industries and the harvesting of various crops. Moreover, the details also include grapes, grain and flax. On the left-hand wall of the western chamber, there are offering scenes. In fact, the scenes follow the owner into a long corridor and a room with a large burial shaft. On the right-hand wall Pepyankh seen in a palanquin. Moreover, he shaded by a fan-bearer. Furthermore, he also accompanied by his pet dog and monkey in registers above.

In fact, the tomb also has another small offering chamber to the rear. The chamber also contains a false door. The central chamber is the first one when you enter the tomb. In fact, it depicts the tomb-owner while he carries out his duties. It is with scribes, secretary and attendants who inspect the workshops. The eastern chamber contains funeral scenes . Moreover, it also contains a serdab with portrayals of the deceased on the walls.

Tomb of Senbi (Meir B-1):

This is perhaps one of the best known tombs at Meir. Senbi held the hereditary position of Nomarch and “Overseer of Priests”. In fact, it was during the reign of Amenemhet I of Dynasty XII, and his father called Ukhhotep. His tomb contains many scenes of offerings. In fact, some of them damaged now. The tomb also has agricultural and manufacturing scenes. The best preserved of the manufacturing scenes include vase-making. He also shown in a spectacular desert hunting scene, accompanied by his dogs. At either side against the front walls of the chapel are two basins. In fact, the basins used during the offering rituals. A raised central aisle leads through the tomb to a statue niche at the rear.

Tomb of Ukhhotep (Meir B-2):

Ukhhotep was the son of Senbi (B-1) and held the hereditary title of “Great Chief of the Nome”. Moreover, he also held the title of “Overseer of Priests of Hathor of Cusae”. Furthermore, he also held the title of “Overseer of Priests of the Lady of All”. In fact, it was during the reign of Senusret I of Dynasty XII . Reliefs in the tomb include scenes like to those of his father. The scenes also include offerings and marsh activities. A great variety of wildlife depicted in hunting scenes. in fact, they are in a lifelike and colorful manner. The tomb unfinished at the owner’s death. Moreover, there are some figures which are roughly sketched in red paint. On the southern wall, there are scenes of cattle whose herdsmen look emaciated. In fact, they show a famine during this period. The paintings in this tomb indeed are vivid.

Tomb of Ukhhotep (Meir B-4):

Another tomb at Meir belongs to a man named Ukhhotep. In fact, he was a son of Ukhhotep and Mersi. Moreover, he also held similar titles of Nomarch to the previous Ukhhotep. In fact, it was during mid-Dynasty XII. His tomb has a much more complex structure with a raised central aisle. The aisle leads to a statue niche with an elaborate “palace facade” decoration. The wall-scenes in the tomb are of similar themes to other Middle Kingdom tombs at Meir.

In fact, the scenes include fishing and agricultural scenes and industries. The extended Family of Ukhhotep represented in seven registers. In fact, it is on the end wall on the left-hand side of the chapel. At the rear of the chapel to the right there is an offering chamber. In fact, the chamber contains texts of offering list rituals. Moreover, it also has a false door flanked by images of the tomb-owner.

Further details about Meir tombs:

Restoration of the tombs at Meir began in 1997 and several tombs now had the walls consolidated. Moreover, the reliefs restored to their original bright colors. At least nine of the tombs are open to visitors from a total of seventeen which planned. New stairways constructed and made the access easier. Moreover, there are a small coffee-shop and toilets. In the past the tombs at Meir prone to illicit digging and illegal excavations. In fact, this allowed the thieves to steal the artifacts and take them out of the country. Yet, some of them returned and with many others else displayed now in a small museum. In fact, the museum locate at Mallawi in El Minya, Egypt. The museum comprises a limestone seated statue of Pepyankh and his wife from tomb A-2.

How to get to Meir:

The town of El Quseya is 50 km north of Asyut, and around 25 km south of Mallawi on the west bank of the Nile. From El Quseya a road leads west to the edge of the cultivation for about 8 km to the necropolis of Meir. Visitors may buy tickets from the new ticket office at the site. Photography not usually allowed inside the tombs.

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Hatnub Quarries Asyut Egypt

Hatnub Quarries

Hatnub Quarries Asyut, Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

Hatnub quarries are stone quarries which located in Asyut, Egypt. In fact, Hatnub quarries are just 65 Kilometer south of El Minya. Moreover, the quarries located to the south east of Tell El Amarna. Furthermore, the area contains the principal quarries for travertine or calcite. Moreover, it known as “Egyptian Alabaster” and used from the Old Kingdom. In fact, the name Hatnub means “Mansion of Gold”. Hatnub quarries had many hieroglyphic inscriptions, graffiti and pottery sherds. In fact, the hieroglyphic inscriptions enabled us to understand the history of the site. There are inscriptions of Dynasty VI kings Teti and Pepi I which carved into the quarried rock.

The site perhaps immortalized during this period in the “Biography of Weni”. In fact, the Biography of Weni is from the official’s tomb chapel at Abydos. In his biographical text, Weni described a mission he undertook for Pepi’s son Merenre. The inscription says “His Majesty sent me to Hatnub to bring a great altar of alabaster”. So, it presumably used in the construction of Merenre’s pyramid. Moreover, Pepi II’s name also appears in texts here. Hatnub quarries were, at least in the early days, for use by the king. Yet, later graffiti shows that wealthy families also exploited the valuable stone. In fact, it was in the First Intermediate Period.

Further details about Hatnub Quarries:

Moreover, there are important topics which addressed in texts from Hatnub quarries. They include the struggle of the Herakleopolitan rulers against the Theban rebels. It was at the end of the First Intermediate Period. In fact, the Theban kings gained in power. The inscriptions of the ruler Mentuhotep recorded on the rock walls. Moreover, the inscription of Mentuhotep IV also recorded on the rock walls. In fact, they were from the Middle Kingdom. Mentuhotep IV’s texts show that some of the nomarchs of Middle Egypt were troublesome. The nomarchs of the Heliopolitan nome were self-styled ‘”kings”. In fact, the kings who still held power during the Middle Kingdom.

In fact, it was although now more supervised by the pharaoh’s officials. The ruler of the Hermopolite nome, Neheri, left inscriptions at the site. In fact, the inscriptions dated back to his own “reign”. Moreover, the inscriptions shows that he challenged the Theban pharaoh’s authority. One of the last of the powerful nomarchs was Djutihotep of Dynasty XII. In fact, his tomb located at Deir El Bersha. The tomb contains a depiction of 172 men who drag a colossal alabaster statue. In fact, the statue is over 6.5 meter high and they drag is from Hatnub quarries. Hatnub quarries much used in the New Kingdom. Moreover, the quarries received attention from Amenhotep I of Dynasty XVIII time.

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There is colossal alabaster Sphinx in the precinct of the Ramesside temple at Memphis. In fact, this sphinx carved from calcite from the Hatnub quarries. Moreover, the sphinx was one of a pair who guarded an earlier monument at Memphis. Furthermore, they placed there by Hatshepsut. In fact, Hatshepsut’s name identified on an alabaster jar fragment. The jar is from the Temple of Ptah at Memphis. In fact, she was the first New Kingdom ruler. Moreover, she built many monuments in Middle Egypt and of course had access to the Hatnub quarries. In fact, the site had three principal quarrying areas. Moreover, the site’s main quarry (P) is a pit 55 meter by 85 meter in area and 16 meter deep.

Moreover, there were also settlements for the workers. In fact, the settlements characterized by dry stone walls and windbreaks. Moreover, they also characterized by a transportation system of causeways and roads. The site was an important source for the precious stone. In fact, the stone carved so that the light would shine through it. Moreover, it used in the construction of altars, sarcophagi and beautiful shrines. The shrines are such as that of Senusret I which reconstructed in Karnak open-air museum. In fact, there was nothing to equal its aesthetic qualities in Ancient Egypt.

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El Badari region Asyut Egypt

El Badari Region

El Badari Region Asyut, Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

El Badari region located on the east bank of the Nile at the edge of the eastern desert, Egypt. Moreover, El Badari region lies between Akhmim in Sohag and Asyut. In fact, El Badari region is a series of cemeteries which investigated by Petrie between 1922 and 1931. These ancient burial grounds stretch from Qaw El Kebir in the south to Matmar. Moreover, they served as burial grounds for the inhabitants of El Badari region. In fact, the inhabitants were of Middle Egypt from Predynastic times and Roman era. El Badarai region encompasses cemeteries at El Hammamiya and El Badari. Moreover, El Badari region also house cemeteries of Mostagedda, Deir Tasa and Matmar.

Many of the sites excavated during the early part of the 20th century. In fact, the finds at this site date back to the Badarian Period 5500 to 4000 BC. The area covers 35 km from south to north at the edge of the valley plain. Moreover, El Badari region comprises about 7000 recorded tombs. In fact, there are many artifacts which found during excavations. A distinctive pottery type identified which topped and polished red vessels. Petrie named it Badarian ware. Terracotta vessels and stone vases, ivory figurines and slate palettes also found. Moreover, large quantities of flint tools also found around many of the graves.

Further details about El Badari region:

In fact, the archaeologists gained much information about the Badarian culture from these objects. The people were early farmers in the Nile Valley and originated from an area of Upper Sudan. Skeletal remains show that they were tall people. Furthermore they wore their hair in plaits and garments woven. They made from flax or grass fibers and animal skins. Moreover, they were also hunters and fishermen, herded sheep and cattle. They cultivated cereals such as emmer and barley as well as lentils. Moreover, they also cultivated tubers to supplement their diet. They stored their food in large upright bins or jars which placed in holes in the ground.

Post holes, pits and ash hearths also found at El Badari region. The Badarian people were the first in Egypt to manufacture metal objects. In fact, the metal objects were in the form of copper beads and pins. Yet, they used flint and stone tools to create the beautiful pottery we see today in museums. The best known pottery of this period is the black-topped and burnished wares. In fact, they carried on into the Naqada Periods. The Badarian people influenced by the world around them. In fact, they produced textured pottery in the form of baskets. Moreover, they also produced gourds and vessels in animal form. The information about Predynastic burials comes from the cemeteries in Upper and Middle Egypt. It is while Lower Egypt revealed settlement sites from the period.

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Deir El Gabrawai Asyut Egypt

Deir El Gabrawi Egypt

Deir El Gabrawi Asyut, Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

Deir El Gabrawi is a village which located he east bank of the Nile north of Asyut, Egypt. In fact, Deir El Gabrawi comprises a cemetery of over one hundred rock-cut tombs. The tombs date back to the late Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period. Moreover, the site contains the burials of powerful provincial governors of the region. Their local deity was Anti, a falcon-headed god of war. Furthermore, the tombs cut into the hillside in two main groups. In fact, they are on on an upper and lower level which linked by stone steps. Some of the high-status officials buried there controlled a large region.

Moreover, they stretch from Deir El Gabrawi as far as Abydos. Furthermore, they held titles such as “Great Overlord of the Abydene Nome”. The most important tombs on the upper level belong to Ibi and Gawa. Moreover, they also include two high-ranking officials of the early Middle Kingdom. In fact, these tombs maybe open by request. Scenes within the tombs show the owners taking part in religious rites. Moreover, the scenes also show agricultural and industrial activities. In fact, the reliefs from these tombs stolen in the mid-1990. But, they now returned and replaced in their original positions.

Further details about Deir El Gabrawi:

Wall-scenes in the Old Kingdom tombs represent the owners overseeing crafts. Moreover, they also depict agriculture, fishing and hunting. Norman de Garis Davis completed recording work at Deir El Gabrawi. In fact, it was at the beginning of the 20th century for the publication of the tombs. It was on behalf of the Egypt Exploration Fund for their “Archaeological Survey”. In fact, it which begun by Percy Newbury.

How to get to Deir El Gabrawi:

The site lies on the eastern bank of the Nile opposite the town of Manfalut. Moreover, the village located to the north of Asyut. It is about 385 kilometer from Cairo. So many trains, buses and cars go to Asyut from Cairo daily. You can get one of them to reach Manfalut. Over there, you should cross the Nile with a guide to the site. In fact, the tombs cut into the cliffs on the edge of the desert.

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Deir EL Hagar temple Dakhla Oasis Egypt

Deir El Hagar temple Egypt

Deir El Hagar temple Dakhla Oasis, Egypt information, tours, booking

Deir El Hagar temple is a sandstone temple which located on the western edge of Dakhla Oasis, Egypt. Moreover, Deir El Hagar temple is just 10 kilometers from Al Qasr. Furthermore, Deir El Hagar temple located in the desert to the south of the cultivation. In fact, Deir El Hagar temple known as “Place of Coming Home” or “Set-whe” in Ancient times. Furthermore, the temple buried in debris and sand for many centuries. In fact, it was by the huge dune which can still seen to the south. Recently, Deir El Hagar temple uncovered, restored and reconstructed during the 1990. It was by the Dakhla Oasis Project with the Supreme Council of Antiquities and is now open to visitors. Deir El Hagar temple represents one of the most complete Roman monuments in Dakhla Oasis.

The isolated site was a festival temple rather than a cult temple. The cult temple more usually found in the center of a community. In fact, Deir El Hagar temple dedicated to the Theban Triad and to Thoth. The construction of the temple began during the reign of the Roman Emperor Nero 54-68 AC. In fact, the cartouche of Nero can seen in the sanctuary. Furthermore, the temple built to encourage farmers to settle in the area. It is along with irrigation works, villages and the mud-brick Roman farmsteads. In fact, they still seen in the area which surrounds the temple. Nero’s successor Vespasian 69-79 AC added decoration to the sanctuary. And then, Titus (79-81 AC) added the porch.

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Finally Domitian (81-96 AC) decorated some of the doorways and the monumental gateway. Moreover, other Roman rulers contributed to the decoration. In fact, it was with the latest inscription in the temple which dates back to the 3rd century AC. Deir El Hagar temple building measures 7.3 meter by 16.2 meter. Moreover, the temple has a well-preserved outer mud-brick enclosure wall. It is where some remains of painted plaster still seen. The main gateway located in the eastern side of the enclosure wall. Moreover, there is another gateway to the south, in the temenos wall of the sanctuary. In fact, the gateway depicts many Greek inscriptions and graffito. They written by early travelers who wanted to record their visits to this sacred place.

During the 19th century, travelers began to visit Deir El Hagar temple. In fact, many of the visitors left their names incised high on the columns and walls of the porch. Moreover, an sign of the level of sand fill at that time. On a column in the columned hall, are the incised names of the ill-fated expedition. In fact, the expedition led by Gerhardt Rohlfs in January 1874. This expedition traveled to the west of Dakhla into the Great Sand Sea. In fact, they did not expect the size and extent of the huge sand dunes. After three days, they had to turn back and take a another route to Siwa Oasis. In 1874 Remale also cleared sand from the sanctuary. In 1908 Winlock published the first extensive description of Deir El Hagar temple.

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Moreover, during the 1960s, Ahmed Fakhry excavated in front of the porch. There is a processional way which leads from the main gateway up to the temple entrance. In fact, it still has remains of round mud-brick columns. The remains were part of pillared halls and flank the entrance. Moreover, a few small sphinxes found in this area can now seen in the Kharga Heritage Museum. The entrance to the temple is through a screen wall into the wide pronaos or porch which has two columns. A doorway leads to a small hypo-style hall containing four columns. The doorway in turn opens into a hall of offerings before the central sanctuary. The sanctuary flanked by two side-chambers. Furthermore, to the south is the staircase which gave access to the roof.

To the north, there is a storage chamber. The sanctuary itself decorated with a magnificent astronomical ceiling. In fact, it dates back to the rule of Hadrian (117-138 AC). Moreover, it painted reliefs including an arching figure of the goddess Nut. The figure represents the sky and the god Geb who symbolizes the earth. In the center of the ceiling, the god Osiris represented by the constellation of Orion. The other astronomical features represented by various deities. In fact, their task was to maintain the universe. Also depicted on the ceiling is a representation in the form of a sphinx, of the god Tutu. The fallen zodiac ceiling from the sanctuary re- assembled. In fact, it was for viewing outside the temple building. Such a scene is unique in temple sanctuary decoration.

Further details about Deir El Hagar temple:

The west wall at the rear of the sanctuary gives prominence to the primary gods of the temple. In fact, the gods are Amun-Re and Mut. The south wall portrays the Theban Triad of Amun-Re, Mut and Khons. Moreover, it also portrays Seth, Nephthys, Re-Horakhty, Osiris and Isis, and Min-Re. The northern wall includes the Theban Triad. In fact, it is alongside the Heliopolitan creator gods, Geb, Nut, Shu and Tefnut. Here also is an important representation of the Dakhla god Amun-Nakht. Furthermore, there is an inscription from the sanctuary. In fact, the inscription denotes his earliest known visit to the oasis.

This desert god, shown at Deir El Hagar temple with his consort Hathor. Thoth is another deity which well represented in the oases. In fact, Thoth also seen with his local consort Nehmetaway. Remains of other still partly-buried structures surround Deir El Hagar temple. Moreover, there is a block field to the west of the enclosure. In the immediate vicinity, there is much evidence of agriculture in Roman times. In fact, it included pigeon-houses. To the north-west of Deir El Hagar temple is a Roman Period cemetery. In fact, it is where crude human-headed terracotta coffins uncovered.

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Mons Claudianus Safaga Egypt

Mons Claudianus Egypt

Mons Claudianus Safaga, Egypt information, tours, booking

Mons Claudianus located about 40 km along the Safaga – Qena road, Egypt. Moreover, it is 500 km south of Cairo and 120 km east of the Nile. Mons Claudianus situated in the heart of the Red Sea mountains. In fact, Mons Claudianus was a Roman quarry in the eastern desert of Egypt. It consisted of a garrison, a quarrying site, and civilian and workers’ quarters. Granodiorite mined for the Roman Empire where it used as a building material. The site features fragments of granite with several artifacts such as a broken column. Moreover, the site also features many of texts which written on broken pottery (Ostraca).

Mons Claudianus lies in the Eastern desert of upper Egypt and discovered in 1823 by Wilkinson and Burton. About 50 km away is another imperial stone quarry which known as Mons Porphyries. In fact, it is the world’s only source of purple porphyry. The excavation of Mons Claudianus by the Romans occurred through two centuries. It was from the 1st century AD to the mid-3rd century AD. There is no evidence of settlements near or at the quarry before the Roman settlement. The arid conditions of the desert allowed the documents and organic remains to survive.

Further details about Mons Claudianus:

Mons Claudianus was an abundant source of Granodiorite for Rome. In fact, it uses in notable Roman structures. The structures are such as the emperor Hadrian’s villa at Tivoli and public baths. Moreover, the structures also included the floors and columns of the temple of Venus. Furthermore, they also included Diocletian’s Palace at Split. They also included the columns of the portico of the Pantheon in Rome. In fact, all quarried at Mons Claudianus. Each was 39 feet (12 m) tall, five feet (1.5 m) in diameter, and 60 tons in weight.

Mons Claudianus access routes and transport :

Mons Claudianus linked to the Nile River by a traceable surviving Roman road. Moreover, it marked by way-stations spaced out at one day intervals. The stones from the quarries which shaped in the desert, taken then along the road to the Nile Valley. In fact, it was for trans-shipment to Rome. Documents which found on site referred to 12-wheeled and 4-wheeled carts. They also included a request for delivery of new axles. The journey would last about five days or longer. The way-stations resembled small defended ‘forts’ with many rooms. In fact, they accompanied by stabling and a water-supply. Moreover, they served as motels where the men and animals moving the stones could rest, eat and drink. Donkeys may used to transport food and water which needed by men.

In fact, it was between way-stations and to pull the wagons. Yet, for larger loads it seems that both human and animal labor used. Camels used for communication and for the transport of food and water. The columns may have also dragged more than 100 km from the quarry to the river. In fact, it was on wooden sledges. Though the terrain from quarry to the Nile is such that the route which was downhill the entire length. They floated by barge down the Nile River . In fact, it was when the water level high during the spring floods. And then, transferred to vessels to cross the Mediterranean Sea to the Roman port of Ostia. There, they transferred back onto barges and pulled up the Tiber River to Rome.

Life in Mons Claudianus:

The quarry administered by the Roman army. The quarry men of Mons Claudianus skilled and well-paid civilian workforce. Moreover, their lifestyle at the quarry could described as luxurious. In fact, the Ostraca refers to four groups of people. They are soldiers and officials, skilled, civilian workers, unskilled workers and women and children. Many of the workers at Mons Claudianus earned around 47 drachmas a month. In fact, it was twice as much as their counterparts in the Nile Valley. Furthermore, their salary also includes “Arddab” which was approximately 47 pints of wheat. In fact, it was according to the Ostraca ( earthen pots with inscriptions on them).

Evidence has found of 55 different food plants and 20 sources of animal proteins. In fact, the available foods included fish from the Red Sea, luxuries like artichoke, citron and pepper from India. Moreover, they also included Game animals, snails and oysters. Findings of seeds of cabbage, leaf beet, lettuce, mint, basil and a few others were not present. In fact, food both delivered and grown at Mons Claudianus. It was to maintain the health of the workers with proper iron and vitamin C intake. Germinated, carbonized barley grains have also found. Imported chaff, straw, barley grain, charcoal and midden material used for animal fodder.

Further details about Mons Caludianus:

At the Quarries, several columns, some basins and a bath still found. In fact, they lying broken. The largest column is 60 ft high and weighs some 200 tonnes. Many buildings still survive intact to roof height. The settlement resembled a fort with walls and projecting towers. Moreover, it housed an estimated 1000 people, both quarry men and guards. The stones from the quarries shaped in the desert to reduce their weight. And then, they taken to the Nile Valley for shipping to Rome.

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