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Ashtum El Gamil National Park

Ashtum El Gamil National Park Egypt

Information about Ashtum El Gamil National Park, tours, Booking

Ashtum El Gamil National Park is a protected area in Tennis Island, Manzala Lake. In fact, Manzala Lake lies on the Mediterranean coast. It is in the north eastern part of the Nile Delta in Egypt. Moreover,  Ashtum El Gamil National Park belongs to Port Said Governor-ate. The area of Ashtum El Gamil National Park is about 180 km 2. It includes the Strait of El Gamil and the Strait of El Gamil. They link the lake with Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, they also renew the water circulation inside the lake. They increase the stock of fish and prevent concentration of heavy elements. Ashtum El Gamil National Park occupies two-thirds of aquatic ecosystem of Manzala Lake.

In fact, Tennis Island archaeological dates back to the Ayyubid which makes it one of tourist attraction. Ashtum El Gamil National Park lies in the face of the conduct of bird migration lines in the immigration seasons. Tel Tennis archaeological site is an habitat for rest, food and reproduction for all types of resident and migratory birds. Prevalence and diversity of vegetation within the reserve ecosystems (ecosystem Ground – water – salt-loving).


Ashtum EL Gamil located in the west of Port Said. The line parallel to the coastal road of Port Said Damietta. It is in the beginning of Kilo 6 to the km 13. And then veers into the lake by the coordinates even up to Albstehr Sea on the south side. Ashtum El Gamil lies in the northwestern part of Manzala Lake. It’s area is 172 km2.

Getting there:

It lies about 13 km west of Port Said city. Moreover, you can get to the visitors center of Ashtum El Gamil bay taking Port Said – Demiat Road. The center located at KM 10.

Access to the protected area:

In fact, there is no charge to enter the protected and protected open for visitors

Targets of creation Ashtum El Gamil:

1. The conservation of Manzala Lake biodiversity.

2. Maintenance of ecological and environmental systems protected area of Lake Manzala.

3. The conservation of Birds groups. These which threatened with extinction. Both resident and migrating to the lake during migration seasons.

4. Preservation of fish stocks in Manzala Lake, especially the excellent marine species.

5. Maintain the medicinal plants and the development of sound it uses.

6. Preservation of Islamic monuments and tennis area, which dates back to the Ayyubid era.

7. Promote environmental awareness among all constituencies.

Archaeological character:

In fact, Tel Tennis located to the southwest of Port Said. It is 7 km inside Manzala Lake. Its area is about 8 km2. This area was agricultural land fertile and be perfectly tender. Furthermore, it dropped its territory in the wake of an earthquake occurred in the late sixth century. The water broke into the sand dunes that separated between the sea and the land. It took water covered year after year. So the region flooded except for the city of Tennis. It was a great building full of quarters, widening trade and livelihood. Moreover, it renowned industry minute and cultivated with palm trees and vines and textiles. It was named Tennis relative to the Tennis Bin Ham the son of Noah

Ashtum El Gamil National Park Attractions:

Tel Tennis Archaeological:

It includes the monuments of the Tennis town dating to the sixth century AD. Moreover, it located in the south to Ashtum EL Gamil. It is one of the attractions of the resident and migratory birds

Water sources in Manzala Lake:

Saltwater water sources saltwater comes from El Gamil And Ashtum Straits. And one more from Al Boughdady Strait which located in north of the lake. One more from Al Borg Strait which located in the northwest of the lake. The last one is from Suze canal which provides the lake with 1.5 % of the water. Fresh Water sources come from banks located in the south and west of the lake. They are Bahr El Bakar bank, El Serrw bank, Ramses Bank, Hados Bank and El Annaneyya Bank. They provide the lake with 97% of the water. The rest comes from the rain. Manzala Lake depth ranging between 80 cm and 300 cm near Al boaquez.

Ashtum El Gamil environment:

In fact, the weather is dry. The temperatures ranges between 27.7 Celsius during the summer and 15.3 Celsius during winter. The relative humidity is almost of no less than 60%. A higher moisture registered 73.9% during April and lower relative humidity of 59.3% in March. The average rainfall in the year is 68.84 mm / year. It considered the highest rainfall rate is 24.64% in October. The prevailing winds are north-west. Moreover, the high winds ranging between 14.7 km / h in January and 19 km / h in February.

Ashtum El Gamil Biodiversity:

It has 80 species of productive organisms

1. Birds:

In fact, Ashtum El Gamil is one of the most important area for bird watching in Egypt. Moreover, it has about 233 species of birds. Some of them are residents such as Pied Kingfisher, Agd doves and Little Egret. Furthermore, the others are Immigrant such as ducks, white anxiety, quail, Alger and wading birds.

2. Plant:

Ashtum El Gamil has more than 50 species of plants

3. Fish

In fact, Manzal Lake indeed is one of the most important sources of fish in Egypt. Moreover, it is a main source of fish that live in the freshwater. Fish are such as White and Green Tilapia. Besides to the fish that live in salt water such as thin lip – and mullet

The direct economic importance of Ashtum El Gamil National Park:

Ashtum El Gemil National Park is indeed important for agriculture, medicine, industry and the environment.

In the field of agriculture:

· Wild plants represent a source of food, both for birds, fish and animals within the reserve.

· The advantage of existing genetic material inside the wild plants. It used in the improvement of some agricultural crops strains

· Some wild plants such as Azolla plant used in plant nitrogen fixation. This also leads to reduced use of chemical fertilizers.

In the field of medicine:

In fact, some wild plants such as leaf rode used to produce drugs. The drugs help in the treatment of many diseases. In fact, this planet used as a remedy repellent intestinal worms (Ascaris) and also powerful purgative. There is also wild hibiscus plant. Moreover, it used in the treatment of gastroenteritis and anemia. Furthermore, it also used to treat sore throat and tonsils. Murar Plant used in the treatment of bleeding, a diuretic and anthelmintic.

In the field of industry:

· Most of the locals use some types of plants in handicrafts such as mat and Almhnat

· Some of these plants intervention in the paper industry and production of natural gas.

In the field of the environment: –

· Some plants used in Sewage treatment, industrial and agricultural. It called biological therapy

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Nelson's Island Alexandria Egypt

Nelson’s Island Alexandria Egypt

Nelson’s Island Alexandria Egypt information, tours, prices, booking

Nelson’s Island lies approximately 20 kilometers east of the Egyptian port of Alexandria. In fact, Nelson’s Island is four kilometers north of Cape Abu Qir. Moreover, it guards the northern approach of Abu Qir Bay. Abu qir bay is the western part of the Nile Delta. In antiquity, the Bay provided one of the primary commercial routes. In fact, it leads into the Nile River and so became a major commercial and religious center. The position of Nelson’s Island ensured that it too became an important site. Dr. Gallo’s excavations that commenced in 1997 are beginning to reveal its archaeological riches.

Nelson’s Island is quite small extending around 350 meters on a rough north south axis. Moreover, Nelson’s Island is about 125 meters at its widest point (the southern end). But as Dr. Gallo points out ‘it is small for an island but big for an archaeological site!’. The island littered with potsherds and the faint outline of walls and structures. Moreover, in antiquity the island was larger than today. Erosion and heavy quarrying of yellow sandstone played their part. Their part was in reducing the size of the island.

Further details about Nelson’s Island Alexandria:

In October 2001 The Nelson Society contacted by Dr. Paolo Gallo. He is a Professor of Egyptology at the University of Torino (Turin). Furthermore, he also is Director of the Italian Archaeological Institute. The institute based at Alexandria, Egypt. Dr. Gallo’s exciting news was that during excavations of ancient structures on Nelson’s Island. he discovered some artifacts, graffiti and burials. He believed that they related to the British occupation of the island. They are from shortly after the Battle of the Nile. In fact, it was in August 1798 to Keith’s and Abercrombie’s landings in March 1801.

Dr. Gallo concerned that these burials were under direct threat from erosion. Both from the subsidence of the island and general weathering, as well as from human action. Nelson’s Island became a local picnicking and fishing site. Dr. Gallo was anxious that these graves would shortly lost. That learnt from them if nothing done to excavate and to re bury them.

More details about Nelson’s Island Alexandria:

Nick Slope was Vice Chairman of The Nelson Society. He visited Alexandria and Nelson’s Island in April 2002. It decided to support Dr. Gallo’s excavation as much as was possible. A plan and budget prepared and put. The action plan and budget approved. The fund raising, detailed planning and background research commenced. Unfortunately Dr. Gallo fell ill in September 2002.

The excavation delayed by some weeks while he recovered. In fact, the excavation now underway and Nick Slope joined the dig on 20 October 2002. This is to excavate and record those burials under threat. Artifact evidence study, record and publish the graffiti were under the direction of Dr. Gallo. They decided that to keep The Nelson Society membership and anyone else who interested up to date.

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Burullus Lake Alexandria Egypt

Burullus Lake Egypt

Information about Burullus Lake in Egypt, tours, Booking

Burullus Lake located along the Mediterranean coast. The lake occupies a more or less, central position between the two branches of the Nile. Moreover, it extends between 31o 22′ – 31 o 26′ N and 30 o 33′ – 31 o 07′ E. It is a shallow brackish lake, connected with the sea by a small outlet (Boughaz). It is about 50m wide near El Burg village. The length of the lake is about 65 km. The width varied between 6 and 16 km, with an average of about 11 km. The depth of the lake ranges between 0.42 and 2.07 m. The eastern sector of the lake is the shallowest, showing an average depth of 0.8m. The present area of Burullus Lake is 420 km2 (100000 acre) of which 370 km2 is open water.

Former estimates of the area are 588 km2 (140000 acre) in 1913. Moreover, it was 574 km2 (136620 acre) in 1956 and 462 km2 (110000 acre) in 1974. It seems that during the last 6 years there has been a reduction in the lake area by 30%. This decrease is due to continuous land reclamation projects along the southern and eastern shores of the lake. The southern part of Burullus Lake receives freshwater supply from 6 drains and one brackish water canal. The saline water enters the lake from the sea through El Boughaz, at the northeastern part. The quality and quantity of in-flowing waters to the lake determine the distribution of the biota of the lake.

Further details about Burullus Lake:

Burullus Lake is very different from what it was several decades ago before the construction of the Aswan High Dam. When it used to be subjected to the periodical Nile floods in late summer and autumn. Burullus lake separated from the sea by a strip of land. It covered with sand bears and dunes of varying widths and heights. The bottom of the lake is sandy with silty material in the Boughaz area. Elsewhere there are clay and mud deposits. At drain mouths there is predominantly black mud. There are approximately 50 uninhabited islets in the lake. The shores of the lake covered with dense vegetation of mainly Phragmits australis and Juncus sp.

The lake – sea connection sometimes closed in the spring. This is due to the movement and accumulation of beach sands. It caused by the coastal circulation of sea water in the region of El Boughaz. Water temperature varies from 11o C in February to 29.5o C in August. The Burullus region has the characteristic climate of lower Egypt. The major nutrient sources for Burullus Lake comes through the drain and the recycling of organic materials. Nutrient concentration is relatively high in the south western part. It is where more than 75% of the total amount of drain water enters into Burullus Lake.


Phytoplankton community in Burullus Lake is relatively low and tends to increase from east to west. The average annual value of total Phytoplankton in the lake amount to 1039000 unit/l with a peak in May. They dominated by Bacillariophyta, which represented by 59 species in 10 families. Then Chlorophyta which represented by 36 species belonging to 12 families, while Cyanophyta represented by 7 species only. Aquatic vegetation in the lake characterized by a small number of abundant species. The main species are Common Reed (Phargmites australis), Reed maco (Typha domigensis) and Water hyacinth (Eichhonia crassipes). They also include Duckweed (Lemna sp.), Pond weed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and Horn wort (Ceratophyllum demersum). The Aquatic vegetation of Burullus Lake seems to be increasing almost everywhere. This caused by the increasing in nutrients and fresh water discharge into the lake.


The zooplankton population recorded in Burullus Lake comprises about 115 species included in 60 genera. These are mostly confined to 3 main groups. In fact, they are Copedopa, Rotifara and Cladocera. They constitute collectively about 92.2% by number of the total zooplankton. Generally, the highest zooplankton abundance is recorded from the western sector. The annual average number reached 100972 organisms/m3.

Benthic Fauna:

The benthic fauna shows a low number of species, as is typical of this type of environment. Eleven species, recorded, including molluscs, crustaceans, annelids and insects. The most numerous group is that of mollusks followed by crustaceans.


The occurrence of brackish water results in a large number of fish species inhabiting Burullus Lake. In fact, 32 species of fish found in the lake. Several, puse marine fishes, i.e. Sparus aurata and Solea solea invade Burullus Lake for some periods of time. They usually found in areas of high salinity. In areas where the water is brackish, more species found.


Burullus Lake indeed is as a wintering area of international importance for waterbirds. In fact, Burullus Lake is one of the most important wintering areas. It is for the Whiskered Tern breeding in Europe and Western Asia. It contains the highest concentration of this species in the world. The total number of waterbirds wintering in Burullus Lake and adjacent marshes may well exceed half a million. Land reclamation along the southern and south-eastern periphery of the lake is the main threat. The continuous land reclamation projects have an irreversible impact on the ecosystem of the lake. This is because of its great international importance. The wintering area for the Palearctic waterbirds strongly suggested to stop further land reclamation. Furthermore, it made Burullus Lake and adjacent marshes a wildlife reserve.


Burullus Lake located in the warm temperature zone. The average monthly air temperature usually attains its minimum value of 13.3oC during winter (January). It increases gradually throughout the spring. It reaches its average maximum values of 26.6oC in the summer (July). This is followed by a gradual decrease in the autumn. The air temperature also subjected to diurnal variations.

Wind Action:

The dominant wind in the Burullus Lake area blows mostly from the western direction. It sometimes changes its direction to north or north-western. Besides less frequently to northeastern directions. In fact, it may also blow from the south-western during winter. The prevailing wind speed averages between 1 and 16 knots. Wind speed more than 16 knots is less frequent. While wind speed more than 27 knots is very rare and confined mostly to winter months. There is direct effect of the increased wind speed on the general hydography of the lake. In fact, it manifested by the introduction of the sea.

The water into the lake through the Boughaz channel, the size of which depends on the wind velocity and duration. According to the shallowness of the lake, the increased wind velocity causes also a turbulence of water. Also, the wind movements play an important role in the distribution of salinity in the lake. When it is easterly winds, the drain’s freshwater covers most of the lake. Moreover, it decreases the salinity to a large extent. The northerly winds drive water southerly and the salinity increases even next to drains.

Rain Fall:

In fact, the north Mediterranean Sea coast of Egypt is as the rainiest part of the country. Such rain represents additional source of fresh water to the lake. And which amounts to an average of about 100 million m3 per year as computed from meteorological data. The rainfall in Burullus Lake area mostly confined to late autumn and winter (December-February). And while the other months are often dry. The average annual rain fall is about 200 mm per year. This value varies from one year to another and. It usually fluctuates between 150 and 300 mm per year (Aboul-Ezz, 1984).

In fact, all of Burullus Lake declared a protected area under law 102/1983, in May 1983. It was with the lake and the sandbar which included within the boundaries of the reserve. The present value of Burullus Lake as a breeding area for waterbirds is high. Both in respect of an Egyptian standard and on an international scale. Burullus Lake is the least disturbed wetland in the Nile Delta. In fact, it is the second largest lake in Egypt. The lake makes this area relatively important compared to other wetland areas in the Nile Delta.

Further details about Burullus Lake:

The salt marshes around Burullus Lake are of major importance for two subspecies endemic to Egypt. There are virtually no data on the function of Burullus Lake. Burullus Lake is a wintering area of international importance for wintering waterbirds. It is where significant numbers of Wigeon, Shoveler, Ferrugineous Duck, Coot and Whiskered Tern recorded. The world’s second largest known concentration of Ferrugineous Duck is from Burullus Lake (Meininger & Atta, 1994). The species is decreasing and the total world population may be less than 25000 birds (Monval & Pirot, 1989). The wintering number of Whiskered Tern in the Delta Lakes is the largest which known in the world.

The importance of the Nile Delta lakes may be substantially larger in winter with cold spells around the Black Sea. There are 17 bird species listed in Egypt as endemic species. They are Streptopelia senegalensis (Palm Dove), Centropus senegalensis aegyptius (Senegal Coucal) and Merops orientalis cleopatra (Little Green Bee-eater). In fact, there are 11 globally which threatened bird species occurring in Egypt.

More details about Burullus Lake:

Wall paintings on the old Egyptian Temples prove that wild birds played some economic roles in the ancestors life. They utilized them for several reasons such as food, decoration, medicine, education, sport and religion. At our present time wild birds still utilized. Several bird species trapped and shot all over the Egyptian wetlands and deserts. It is mainly for food and sport. They effect of these activities on the population of the victim species. Moreover, they also affect on the economy attempted by a few researchers. (Mullie and Meiniger, 1981 and 1983; Goodman and Meininger, 1989; Baha El Din and Salama, 1991; and Baha El Din, 1992).

Waterfowl hunting is an old activity in Egypt that goes back to the dynastic time. At present waterfowl still hunted all over the Egyptian wetlands especially on Burullus Lake. Two types of waterfowl hunting known such as commercial hunting and hunting sport. Both practiced mainly during the winter season when there are an abundant number of wintering birds. The commercial hunting occurs by trapping and shooting waterfowl by the local people. The local people who live around Burullus Lake who are mostly fishermen. The catch sold alive or dead to middlemen in popular markets.

Further details about Burullus Lake:

In fact, hunting sport is a non commercial hunting occurs mainly for pleasure and. The hunted birds not offered for sale, but consumed by the hunter’s families and friends. This type of hunting well organized by two shooting clubs based in Cairo and Alexandria. Cairo Shooting Club hires a number of lakes from the governorates of Sharkia and Ismaelia. It maintains them to use in the winter season as hunting reserves. Duck shooting at these reserves allowed only on 16 days per year. They are one day every week and the lasting from early December to Mid March. The economic value of hunting by the shooting club related to the fees of hiring the lakes. However this economic value cannot considered of significant value to the regional economy.

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