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Babylon Fortress Cairo was an ancient fortress city or castle in the Delta of Egypt. It located at Babylon in the area which today known as Old Cairo. In fact, Babylon Fortress Cairo situated in the Heliopolite Nome. It was upon the right bank of the Nile at latitude 30°N. Moreover, it was near the commencement of the Pharaonic Canal. Pharaonic Canal also called Ptolemy’s Canal and Trajan’s Canal. It was from the Nile to the Red Sea. Babylon Fortress Cairo was at the boundary between Lower and Middle Egypt. Furthermore, it was where the river craft paid tolls when ascending or descending the Nile. Diodorus ascribes the erection of the first fort to rebel Assyrian captives. In fact, it was in the reign of Sesostris.
The Romans built a new fortress with Roman red and white banded masonry nearer to the river. Within Babylon Fortress Cairo’ enclosure are the Coptic Museum, a convent and several Churches. This includes St. George Church, St. Barbara Church and Hanging Church. Babylon Fortress Cairo was the dominant city of Mesopotamia. Another possibility links the name to the ancient Pr-Hapi-n-Iwnw (Nile house of Heliopolis). It was the deity Hapy’s dwelling in Heliopolis city. Hapy was the divinity of the Nile. Heliopolis lay northeast of Memphis, on the east bank of the Nile. It is at latitude 30° N and near to the commencement of the Pharaonic Canal. Moreover, it was connecting the Nile to the Red Sea. Furthermore, it also was the boundary town between Lower and Middle Egypt. It was where the river craft paid tolls when ascending or descending the Nile.
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According to tradition, the first fort built by the Persians in about the 6th century BC. At that time, it was on the cliffs near the river. When the Romans took possession of Egypt, they used the old fort for a while. They recognize its strategic importance on the Nile. The Roman Emperor Trajan relocated the fort to its present location. That was because of problems of water delivery. And which at that time was nearer to the River. Since then, the Nile’s course has moved some 400 meters (430 yards) to the north.
In the age of Augustus the, Deltaic Babylon became a town of some importance. It was the headquarters of the three legions which ensured the obedience of Egypt. In the Notitia Imperii, Babylon mentioned as the quarters of Legio XIII Gemina. Ruins of the town and fortress are still visible a little to the north of Fostat or Old Cairo. During the Arab invasion of Egypt, Babylon Fortress Cairo surrounded for about seven months. It was finally falling in April 641 to the Arab General Amr Ibn Al Aas.